DENSAN Search
TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Yuki TsumugiYuki Pongee

In the Yuki, Ibaraki district, sericulture business was prosperous for a long time, and pongee was made as the use of by-product in the slack season for farmers and has already put in the Imperial Court in the Nara era.
Because Yuki who was feudal lord of this land tried for these industrial protecting and nurturing in the Kamakura era, it is said that the name of Yuki Tsumugi took root after the name of Yuki. The name of Yuki Tsumugi was raised still more by Tadatsugu Ina who became initial chief administrator in the Edo era having introduced technique from Shinshu and Kyoto. Technical improvement is carried out after it was modern times particularly pongee of the highest grade comes to be produced by progress of cloth with splashed pattern texture.

The Yuki area of Ibaraki Prefecture had been a center for sericulture since ancient times. Based on this, Yuki Tsumugi was woven during slack periods of the farming year and cloth was supplied to the Imperial Court during the Nara period (710-794).
Yuki, in fact, who was the lord of the fief in the Kamakura period (1185-1333) worked hard to protect and nurture the weaving of this cloth and ultimately, his name was given to the cloth. Its reputation was enhanced when Ina Chuji, who had became chief magistrate, introduced new techniques from Shinshu and Kyoto. Various technical improvements were made on entering the modern age and especially with the development of ikat weaving, it became possible to produce a pongee of the very highest quality.

Because threads are pulled by hand from the silk floss, and a hundred or so threads of different lengths are intertwined one by one, the yarn is representative of kasadaka fiber, which has no twist. For this reason, it has the simplicity of woven cotton even though it is made of silk and is, in the main, used to make kimono and obi.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Assume Woven textiles woven by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Yarn-dyed; or assume plain weave of last kneading on fire.

     
    (2)
    Use "sitting loom" for weaving.

    2
    Staining of cloth with splashed pattern thread in cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles "binds hand"; niyorukoto.

    3
    Of weft to use for homespun thread when do "shibo collecting" "oi does not lie down"; and is thing due to "hot water fir tree".

    Raw materials

    You spin, and perform way of silk floss of thread to use with thread.

  • Work scenery

    Production of home Yuki Tsumugi is divided into many processes. Let's decide to see main process here.

    Process 1: For silk floss

    We open cocoon stewed with sodium bicarbonate with finger one by one and repeat 5-6 pieces and arrange one piece of bag-like silk floss. Silk floss which can take strong thread more finely is demanded, and experience is necessary so that saying with "spinning yarn three years becomes able to make good silk floss for cotton commonly for eight years".

    Process 2: Spinning yarn

    We wind silk floss around tool called "horsetail" and we spin by hand and put thread in the pail called "senility". You must spin without irregularity of one of by the warp, thickness that varied according to kinds including weft and thickness. Buddha, thing said to be thread are strong things which twist, and hang, and are reinforced soundly, but thread of Yuki Tsumugi is no thread plying that is unique in the world. Ascetic practices of several years are necessary for acquirement of this technique. We need 2-3 months to spin quantity of thread for one.

    Process 3: Pipe firewood (kudamaki)

    It is work to spin, and to wrap pipe with thread in spinning wheel of senility. When force is too strong, thread of the inside gets entangled and must wind up with the moderate speed as we slack if late.

    Process 4: We put up thread

    It is work to be able to lend, and to bind caliber with to make thread constant length. We perform to make it easy to treat thread.

    Process 5: Plane total of (hatanobe)

    We wrap total of stand with thread of 10 several and make even with length necessary to weave 1tan. There is person with for several as once, too.

    Process 6: Design making

    Yuki Tsumugi of the Meiji era was striped pattern and simple vertical pattern of kasuri woofs, but picture cloth with splashed pattern with weft cloth with splashed pattern was popular in the Taisho era. And it became early in the Showa era, and "work cloth with splashed pattern" which made full use of small cloth with splashed pattern such as carapaces of a turtle was devised. We design on special graph paper, and heart is distributed to new design which there was in the times while being able to enter, and making use of tradition.

    Process 7: We bind cloth with splashed pattern

    Dye is dyed on part becoming pattern of cloth with splashed pattern and ties up cloth with splashed pattern thread with cotton yarn not to come. Point that there are four phases of classes receiving carapace of a turtle pattern for 80, 100, 160, 200 between width of cloth and ties up in one width is 160 in 80 simple carapaces of a turtle most. When it is 200 carapaces of a turtle, we tie up point of 400. Generally, we are not limited only by cloth with splashed pattern binding for around three months if it becomes precise.

    Process 8: Dyeing

    We say staining peculiar to Yuki Tsumugi, "you swat, and be dyed", and we bind and squeeze done thread in ahead of stick, and cloth with splashed pattern is method to let we fling against stand, and dye soak. Dye soaks to place that we tied up when we go too far, and when opposite, there is too few, be dyed, and irregularity appears and is work of strain that fresh start does not hear.

    Process 9: Paste reckoning

    Be accompanied by paste to make it easy to treat though we spin, and thread strengthens fuzz dachio weight, waist of thread for cotton form and weaves and do.

    Process 10: Reed keeps on (we suppose)

    Reed (suppose) becomes into a comb form and inserts the warp with spatula called forked tool by two of upper thread and lower thread between 680 eyes. It is work to spin, and to put thread on grasshopper plane.

    Process 11: Plane roll (hatamaki)

    We wind up to "cord roll" from one through the warp which we put through reed (we suppose). We provide this cord roll for grasshopper plane and weave weft.

    Process 12: Grasshopper

    We finish weaving Yuki Tsumugi in the most primitive grasshopper plane called hand-reeling machine. For 1,500 years, we are used how without changing until today. It is the manufacturing method to take both labor and time, but we tie the warp to form on aside to mast base, and we spin hand, and elasticity of thread keeps the softness that there is alive and does not hang the tension that it is impossible to do when we weave. On the other hand, we drive weft with 600 grams in weight made of oak materials, "shuttle" (hi) of approximately 55 centimeters in length more more after having devoted itself with reed (we suppose). Texture peculiar to Yuki Tsumugi which is strong, and is light, and is warm is made in this way. One is person who is early to weave, and there is thing that high-quality article takes 1 year or more for around one month when it becomes.

    Process 13: Stripe shop (island)

    When pongee which weaves, and went up is examined and passes, we are brought in by wholesaler in Yuki-shi, and business with cash is performed. Wholesale dealer is called "stripe shop", but this comes from that Yuki Tsumugi had predominantly many striped patterns in old days.

    Process 14: It goes without paste

    We do crabbing that is the last process before sewing pongee to kimono. We slightly leave paste which we attached before weaving to core of thread and pull and provide the unique softness and texture. Textures increase for the later washing tension still more, and color is improved so as to wear and is familiar with body.

     

     

  • Close-up

    Deep love of creator loaded thread of person line person line with and single-minded heart - - Yuki Tsumugi

    The history of Yuki Tsumugi is old and dates back to the Nara era. Cloth made rice paid as a tax as special product of Hitachi country in the Imperial Court, "ashiginu" are considered to be model of pongee. Home Yuki Tsumugi which grew up was appointed in "Officially designated Traditional craft products" for "important intangible cultural asset" of country for many years in 1977 (Showa 52) in 1956 (Showa 31) by inventive idea of many people. Fukuichi Nomura succeeds to Yuki Tsumugi in wife Chiyoko and four Mr. and Mrs. son.

     

    The prosperity of Yuki Tsumugi

    We took the name of the Yukis, and, in "ashiginu," it was product nationwide well-known as "Yuki Tsumugi" afterwards after it was said to be "Hitachi pongee" in the Muromachi era when Yuki extended power to by Beiguan bunch and was given to the Muromachi Shogunate, Kamakura governor-general of the Kanto area. In the Edo era, we study senho at the time of chief administrator, inabizenshuchuji (inabizennokamitadatsugu) of the Shogunate which ruled this ground and we devise design and create and are improved. In the Meiji era, it is used habitually among the public and be got close. And, for last years of the Taisho era, lateral cloth with splashed pattern (wide cloth with splashed pattern) was devised, and process cloth with splashed pattern (vertical wide cloth with splashed pattern) which called itself work cloth with splashed pattern (saikukasuri) more gradually extended birth, market. However, leave some engineers in wartime; and to rest machine. Yuki Tsumugi which developed growth as the strength of a nation during history. It revives with the end of the war and, through many hardships, continues up to the present day.

    • Typical Yuki Tsumugi of bluish ground

    • Such as small pattern drawn on special graph paper, carapace of a turtle handle from the early days of the Showa era small cloth with splashed pattern is development

    Opportunity to industrial arts person

    Because while we saw work of parent each, hand had that Mr. and Mrs. Nomura began pongee naturally. Originally it was side business of farmhouse, and production of Yuki Tsumugi form spun thread in family and we bound cloth with splashed pattern and finished weaving. Spool which there is of small concentration is Nomura from elementary school. "Feeling that grew up more judging from side that we learned from father." Cloth with splashed pattern restriction is tight when we wear thread to back tooth, and it comes out. It is various, but must tie up with strong power equally with place to tie up widely and place to tie up small. It is work of man whom there is of perseverance by the making of cloth with splashed pattern most. Even if "we relax, and hand changes, it is not good" and needs concentration more than expected and single-minded effort. While Chiyoko goes into mischief in the days of child, it is said that we came to be able to do it. Each other this way 50 years.

    • We add color to part to tie up and mark while letting drawing support

    • Nomura who ties up cloth with splashed pattern well

    Change of 50 years

    Hue best as for having changed in these 50 years. It was striped pattern (island design), but it becomes light color, refreshing color aino place now, and, in old days, handle changes into bluish ground from combination of classic handles to new thing every times, too. We became design rapidly from the middle of 1945, and designs of traditional handle such as carapace of a turtle pattern, lattice pattern, Shippo pattern opened. In the front of it, luxury was forbidden by "extravagance ban" of wartime (shashikinshirei). It is charges of Nomura and flowers with rapid growth of economy all at once. "We did not have time to intend to get other work more because order came". It is said that Toiya was waiting for what we finish weaving at the side of grasshopper plane. Saying is saying "was really popular well in those days"; Nomura. Nomura knowing the gorgeous times that we are popular if we make says that reason why successor is brought up is over there. After all flows from producer to direct consumers will be important in future if we think about son of successor. Primarily Nomura is thinking about sustained cooperation with person wearing what kind of cooperation will be possible with longtime custom that Toiya relays in future. It is problem to make such a structure which person who wants to really wear understands and can buy.

    Modern Yuki Tsumugi of light color

    As work of future Master of Traditional Crafts

    It is said that we want to take good care of the cultural side that Yuki Tsumugi has as well as what Nomura will merely make product from now on, and sell. It can raise heart to value admiration and tradition "wanting to see in pongee" to convey culture of Woven textiles. Interchange activity as such a Master of Traditional Crafts from charges of Nomura. We served as instruction to Kumejima of Okinawa, Kume cloth with splashed pattern (cloth with splashed pattern) and just went to exchange meeting the other day. In addition, we made home studio open space at the same time and decided to open Woven textiles classroom. They can learn upper technique from the basics, and materials and all the texture planes use thing of important intangible cultural asset designation. We weave and become own thing. It is chance deepening love to pongee of person who wears that it increases actual feelings to make.

    Trademark of home Yuki Tsumugi

    Taste to deepen whenever we let pass sleeve

    Yuki Tsumugi that handmade taste deepens as for the kimono which weaves, and went up whenever we let sleeve go through like silk floss (mawata) softly. It is light and is warm and does not get wrinkled. It is said that we cannot part when person liking Yuki Tsumugi tastes this functionality. Nomura devised summer material which gave a feeling of shari using handwoven pongee gi thread and hemp thread. Nomura is thinking at the same time to make work of "important intangible cultural asset Yuki Tsumugi" stored permanently in the Tokyo National Museum when we want to hand kimono which heart of person making reaches.

     
    • Summer material which Nomura devised. We are transparent and look cool

    • It is saved permanently in the "indigo plant blue-sea dance Fumi Matsuho" Tokyo National Museum

    Craftsman profile

    Fukuichi Nomura

    1933, Yuki-shi, Ibaraki birth. Master of Traditional Crafts Holder of an important intangible cultural property. From 94 Ibaraki home Yuki Tsumugi association's director. We win prominent prize for technical ability in director at Ministry of International Trade and Industry Prize, 97 in 96. Father hanpen made an effort for intangible cultural asset designation of Yuki Tsumugi for 31 years.

    Fukuichi Nomura, Chiyoko of wife

    Gleanings

    Yuki Tsumugi and Yuki chest which feel warmth

    Like Yuki Tsumugi, it is "paulownia chest" to be known to the whole country. In substitution for zelkova, wardrobe for wadded silk garments (clothes storing chest) came to be made with paulownia since Yuki became castle town. Paulownia materials are flame retardant and are full of breathability and are most suitable for clothing storing use. Most of are produced as wedding ceremony furniture now. We were appointed to traditional industrial art object of Ibaraki in 1958. This protecting important Yuki Tsumugi is precious Traditional Craft.

    Paulownia clogs
    After the Edo middle, kind of current clogs was established, and the making of paulownia clogs of Yuki was made occupation technically. Shoes are the mainstream present age, but demand does not have a decline in a lot of lovers with breathability and good feel. This paulownia clogs were appointed to traditional industrial art object of Ibaraki as well as paulownia chest in 1958, too.

    • Paulownia chest which is producing approximately 2,000 a year now

    • Exquisite nahakiyasusano paulownia clogs

     

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Yuki Tsumugi
Phonetic symbol Say; come, and spin
Classification of industrial art object Woven textiles
Main product Kimono place, obi
Main production area Ibaraki / Yuki-shi, Shimotsuma-shi, Chikusei-shi, Yachiyo-machi, Yuki-gun Tochigi / Oyama-shi, Shimotsuke-shi, Kaminokawa-machi, Kawachi-gun, Ninomiya-machi, Haga-gun
The designation date March 30, 1977

Contact information

■local production associations

Ibaraki home Yuki Tsumugi Woven textiles cooperative association
〒307-0001
Yuki-shi, Ibaraki larger section of a village Yuki 3018-1
TEL: 0296-32-1108
FAX: 0296-32-1108

http://www.honba-yukitumugi.or.jp/

Tochigi home Yuki Tsumugi Woven textiles cooperative association
〒323-0155
2358, Fukura, Oyama-shi, Tochigi Tochigi industry technology center
The silk pongee thing technological assistance center
TEL: 0285-49-2430
FAX: 0285-49-2430

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

Each one one hundred fiber varying in length only gets twisted up to draw out thread from silk floss by hand and are representative of twist riganai bulkiness fiber (we do not do whether it is shade) to thread. Therefore the feature is that cotton goods-style simplicity is indicated while being silk.

Yuki Tsumugi textiles are the prime representative of the Kasadakaseni textile style, in which thousands of threads are hand-pulled from silk floss, each of slightly differing length, and then woven into a fabric without any twisting of the threads. This produces a fabric which could be mistaken for cotton with its rustic simplicity, but is in fact made of silk.

How to make

All steps are manual labor. Spinning yarn (pile up) gi, kasurikatsu (kuku) ri, 3 processes of grasshopper by sitting loom (hata) are appointed by important intangible cultural asset. We spin thread of approximately 30km by hand to make one piece of kimono and drive weft more than 30,000 times with big shuttle (hi) which 600 g are. Cloth with splashed pattern is extremely close work to compete for error of 1mm.

All steps of producing Yuki Tsumugi fabrics are done completed by hand. The three primary steps of pulling the threads, dying them using an ikat technique, and then weaving them on a loom have all been designated as intangible cultural properties. To make a single kimono fabric, nearly 30 km of thread is pulled by hand, and using a 600 g shuttle, over 30 thousand weft threads are woven. Even a 1 mm error in the weaving will disturb the ikat dyed pattern, making the weaving a painstakingly fine process.

Voice from production center

Yuki Tsumugi appearing in market in custom of long transaction is accompanied by a lot of wheat rice glue which we reinforced to weave. Please take in true texture that pulled paste in exhibitions.