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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Shiozawa TsumugiShiozawa Pongee

The history of Woven textiles of Shiozawa production center of Niigata is old, and our local hemp cloth (current fine linen) woven in the Nara era is stored in Shoso-in of Nara.
Woven textiles which adopted technical technique of this hemp cloth to silk fabrics was Shiozawa Tsumugi and was begun to weave in the Edo era.

The history of weaving in the Shiozawa area is very long and an example of a linen cloth--now Echigo linen--woven during the Nara period (710-794) is preserved in the Shosoin Repository in Nara. The skills and techniques used to weave this linen cloth were adopted for the weaving of a silk cloth that became Shiozawa Tsumugi and was first woven during the Edo period (1600-1868).

This cloth is characterized by a very particular sense of quality and refinement derived from its ikat patterns which are composed of fine crosses called kagasuri--"mosquito ikat"--and a kikkogasuri of box-like pattern, both achieved by tying bundles of thread and rubbing in the dyestuff before weaving. The cloth is used exclusively for kimono.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Assume cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles woven by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Assume yarn-dyed plain weave.

     
    (2)
    Thread to use for the warp assumes raw silk or dupion silk, and thread to use for weft spins hand of silk floss, and do with thread.

     
    (3)
    Use "hand throw shuttle" for implantation of weft.

    2
    Thing by "handrail includes" "we bind hand" or staining of cloth with splashed pattern thread "is dyeing with wooden plates".

    Raw materials

    You spin, and perform way of raw silk, dupion silk or silk floss of thread to use with thread.

  • Work scenery

    When work process of Shiozawa Tsumugi is complicated, but classify roughly, of the warp, weft is yarn-dyed, and is made with cloth with splashed pattern, and weave, and finish. Pongee provides pattern by weaving after performing, "it is yarn-dyed" that we add color to thread earlier. Thread uses raw silk or silk floss hand yarn (mawatateboshi) to raw silk, dupion silk, weft to the warp. We make cloth with splashed pattern thread becoming dyeing of homespun thread and Fumi. The making of cloth with splashed pattern makes cloth with splashed pattern ruler based on drafting, and is sumi, and mark thread along the ruler, and tie up cotton yarn to the seal; "bind hand", and perform dye by rubbing dye into cloth ndeiku "hand rubbing dye into cloth" with ya spatula. Was dyed; pass, and match cloth with splashed pattern thread with no homespun thread, and do to winding ball, and can finally enter texture by setting it to tall handloom (Takahata). The work is carefulness to finish weaving while putting cloth with splashed pattern together carefully one by one. Because threads which process uses in this way are different, in the case of Shiozawa Tsumugi, unique texture is born.

    Process 1: Design, design

    Original design, by sample, locate pattern on graph paper, and make cloth with splashed pattern design, and design finely whether cloth with splashed pattern enters the length of the thread and which position. Then we advance to the next work process by the drafting design.

    Process 2: We twist thread structure

    As for the silk floss hand yarn (mawatateboshi) of weft, extra-fine thread is made by drawing with other finger carefully while cutting silk floss open with one finger. Thickness of thread is fixed by this allowance when we draw. It is part which has been inherited than technique of fine linen. In addition, we distribute raw silk to use according to use including process homespun thread, process cloth with splashed pattern thread and twist along standard. We perform this to equalize thickness and strength.

    Process 3: We attach sumi and strangle

    We put weft (when we come) on tension stand and touch sumi mark at position where it is likely based on cloth with splashed pattern ruler which we made some time ago. Then, we bind part which made sumi mark of weft (when we come) with cotton yarn firmly. In this way, it is not colored on part which we bound. We bind, and dye enters part which we bound if one is weak, and cloth with splashed pattern collapses.

    Process 4: Rubbing dye into cloth (stencil)

    In place where weft turned off needs ink effect, rubbing dye into cloth nde goes dye using bamboo spatula for rubbing dye into cloth literally. In addition, we put in the steam approximately 100 degrees afterwards and fix color.

    Process 5: Grasshopper preparations, texture

    About the warp, we wind homespun thread off to winding ball carefully while preventing cloth with splashed pattern from slipping off. We maintain it on part called heddle eyes (is so like that) of weaving machine one by one and put two threads through reed (suppose) more. Thread is tempted up and down by putting the warp through heddle eyes (so like that), reed (we suppose) of weaving machine. Shiozawa Tsumugi is woven by letting weft come and go using appliance of Funagata called shuttle (hi) between threads lured by top and bottom. In addition, the number of standard warps is around 1,260. Cloth with splashed pattern thread performs cloth with splashed pattern raising and winds off to pipe for texture. Homespun thread winds the right twist, the left twist off to pipe for texture separately. Is right and left accident then; if let's be, mark one. Work of texture uses weaving machine called tall handloom (Takahata).

    Video is played when we click image

    Process 6: Finish rearranging, inspection

    We drop dirt and paste of product which we wove neatly and be set in decided width and roll up. Finally we inspect dirt or texture irregularity and are completion of Shiozawa Tsumugi.

    Video is played when we click image

     

  • Close-up

    Exquisite Woven textiles of the name to be called Shiozawa Tsumugi

    Shiozawa Tsumugi, "willpower coexists with snow and person, and there is writer Bokushi Suzuki reason of Shiozawa in the name of special product." It is special dish which technique still reliable colorfully is loaded with in the world going to change.

     

    Capital of Woven textiles, one Shiozawa of 3, Uonuma county

    "Engi era ceremony" where we wrote down detailed rules of government organization ceremony finished in 927 (Encho 5) of the Court of Heian Period. The word "silk fabrics of Echigo" "hemp cloth of Echigo" was already specified in choyo (important post) that is land tax and trade product, and Woven textiles of Echigo was evaluated if of good quality. In addition, evaluation was high as silk thread. A long time ago, from the times of Heian, in Shiozawa, it is indicated that it was famous as production center of Woven textiles. It may be said that technique of the Woven textiles is severe cold at the same time even if it was bread of their life that was born and raised in snow which is piled up highly, and goes. About cultivated Shiozawa Tsumugi, we heard story about Shiozawa Tsumugi to Kiyoshi Nakajima who was Shiozawa Woven textiles Master of Traditional Crafts from generation to generation.

    Nakajima. We begin since 15 years old and are already engaged in this work for approximately half a century

    Unique texture of Shiozawa Tsumugi

    Unique texture of Shiozawa Tsumugi comes out of posture of "the raw materials first". Silk floss hand yarn to use for weft. This tears hemp which is ever said to be ramie (choma) with fingernail finely, and we see mushiseki to do to thread, and technique of fine linen called (Omi) is kept alive. Silk floss hand yarn which is weft of this Shiozawa Tsumugi is enlarged so that silk floss becomes uniform length by hand, and thin shiny thread is begun to spin. It is work to need perseverance very much. We use raw silk, dupion silk for the warp (tateito). Because threads which process uses are different, unique texture is born, and Nakajima says, it "is said that handling of hem is good" from customer who had you wear.

    Shiozawa Tsumugi, a certain warmth splashed pattern

    Is incorporated delicately, cloth with splashed pattern Fumi who appears

    Cloth with splashed pattern "to put cross, carapace of a turtle (antagonism) cloth with splashed pattern together, and to compose pattern of small cloth with splashed pattern called fine splashed pattern" (pickpocket). We bind traditional hand, and cloth with splashed pattern technology constitutes handle in what we pass and weave cloth with splashed pattern thread, lateral cloth with splashed pattern thread carefully one by one and repeat using technique including handrail. As pattern, bloom pattern and arabesque, geometry Fumi take in various things and seem to express. In state that cloth with splashed pattern Fumi who appeared right made ze;zei for because silk thread of thinness such as hair was interwoven delicately even if untie, is not exaggeration. We may actually understand splendor of Fumi above all by seeing with eyes.

    Warm design that is brought about in technique of cloth with splashed pattern

    It has been already completed during long history

    We use weaving machine (shokki) called tall handloom (Takahata) about tool. "We are improved naturally and can weave without letting you overdo it for thread really." People engaged in this Shiozawa Tsumugi seemed to have tried further improvement several times, but say that we can finally weave weaving machine currently using without unreasonableness suffering from the first, thread now. It is worked by hand of many people, and work of Shiozawa Tsumugi reaches completion before thread hangs over plane (hata). "We do not do it only by oneself. We think to be easy to do work even if there are few next people and do manufacturing." Concentration that is careful about texture which finally arrived at is necessary work. Therefore Woven textiles does not seem to go neatly evenly when feeling of weaver is not flat. However, expert operative at a textile factory "comes to calm down when plane (hata) is cooked." Shiozawa Tsumugi is formed in this way by mental attitude that we are going to connect for the next person in tradition skills and techniques which has been inherited from person to person and work process better.

    Part not to change in good meaning

    Of course traditional technique does not just only continue all the time. We say, "we continue making steady effort every day to add improvement, and to make better thing". In addition, taste of consumers diversifies recently and says that pattern constitution changes. However, Nakajima said, "we want to work hard at manufacturing with feelings to ground style and cloth with splashed pattern of Shiozawa Tsumugi continuously.". Spirit to say to continue still protecting has a glimpse there, and part becoming root and trunk most of Shiozawa Tsumugi gets. Even Nakajima engaged in this work "does not seem to feel like we say that we are full-fledged as history reason having a long Shiozawa Tsumugi which we piled up or half a century either". However, therefore figure which said, "we want to challenge still more" eagerly was impressive.

    Through hand of various people, it is completed for the first time

    Craftsman profile

    Kiyoshi Nakajima

    For half a century, this work is straight all the time after we begin with 15 years old.

    Gleanings

    Plane (hata) is God

    Among Woven textiles-related people, plane (hata) seems to have way of thinking called God. Therefore Nakajima of Master of Traditional Crafts saying, "we have got yelled at when we do not climb on the opportunity (hata) when it is small." A little dedicates cloth to Shinto shrine so that even slightly own arm improves and seems to pray plane God (hatagami) for own arm. In addition, dedication machine (honoubata) seems to mean that we dedicate this cloth. That there seems to be this custom all the time from old days, and state is written in book of writer Bokushi Suzuki of Echigo. Person who did it seemed to decrease, but it was in feeling "that we would pray" for several years before ten and seemed to dedicate Nakajima to Shinto shrine where plane God (hatagami) called Matsuo Shinto shrine in Shiozawa was presented to recently.

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Shiozawa Tsumugi
Phonetic symbol We spin Shiozawa
Classification of industrial art object Woven textiles
Main product Kimono place
Main production area Niigata / Minami-Uonuma-shi
The designation date February 17, 1975

Contact information

■local production associations

Shiozawa Woven textiles industry cooperative association
〒949-6435
107-1, Mokuraiden, Minamiuonuma-shi, Niigata
TEL: 025-782-1127
FAX: 025-782-1128

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

Splashed pattern comprised by small cross cloth with splashed pattern and splashed honeycomb pattern which include suri (do) ri, and are called fine splashed pattern by katsu (kuku) ri work is calm with unique elegance.

The unique, refined elegance of Shiozawa tsumugi is produced by its techniques of Kagasuri (mosquito ikat) - weaving in a Juji-kasuri (fine cross ikat), and Kikko-kasuri (turtle shell ikat) - weaving a fine hexagonal pattern, combined with the ikat resist dyeing process used for the individual threads before they are woven.

How to make

In cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles by yarn-dyed plain weave, we use shubo (pile up) gi thread of silk floss for weft in raw silk and dupion silk to the warp. The process of manufacture is made with design, dyeing, cloth with splashed pattern, and it weaves and is classified roughly for finish. By weaving process, we finish weaving each cloth with splashed pattern thread to design based on drafting by hand.

Shiozawa tsumugi is a plain weaved product made of pre-dyed threads. Raw dupion silk threads are used for the warp, and hand-spun silk threads made from silk floss are used for the weft. The process is mainly divided into making the design, applying a base dye to the individual threads, ikat dyeing the individual threads again to create the pattern, weaving and finally finishing. During the weaving stage, each thread is woven one by one to ensure the final pattern of the design is produced correctly.

Voice from production center

Texture of unique dough is valid still more when we blanch when we prepare.