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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Tokamachi GasuriTokamachi Ikat

It becomes established theory that it is the early 18th century that cloth with splashed pattern technology of cotton crepe colonized.
What came to be applied to silk fabrics of the late 19th century pass, and succeed, and cloth with splashed pattern texture is after. Lateral cloth with splashed pattern came to be woven early in the Meiji era, too. Progress of cloth with splashed pattern technology has remarkable thing at this time, and technique of "projecting cloth with splashed pattern" (we arrive and graze) is created, too. We strangled, and oiled paper, ramie thread (chomaito), bamboo leaf were used for thread at first, but the Taisho era began, and cotton yarn, flat rubber turned into this.

It seems likely that Echigo Chijimi's ikat techniques became established during the first half of the 18th century. However, it was not until the latter part of the 19th century that they were used for weaving a silk cloth, after a warp ikat had been successfully perfected.
Remarkable advances in ikat techniques were made at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912) and tsuki-kasuri was also perfected about this time. Oiled paper, ramie yarn or bamboo grass were used to tie the threads in the early days but in the Taisho period (1912-1926), cotton thread or flat rubber came into use.

Tokamachi Kasuri has both a traditional beauty and a contemporary sensibility. Many people love this fabric because of its luster and wonderful texture. It is widely used for smart everyday kimono worn at home or on special occasions.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Assume cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles woven by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Assume yarn-dyed plain weave.

     
    (2)
    Use cloth with splashed pattern thread for weft or weft and the warp.

     
    (3)
    Performing pattern arrangement of cloth with splashed pattern of the warp and cloth with splashed pattern of weft by manual labor, and beginning to weave cloth with splashed pattern design.

    2
    Staining of cloth with splashed pattern thread by manual labor thing by "print, and "strangle" or include".

    3
    When we look good with "this shibokasuri", "ground weft" use "shoi". After having done lower twist by "eight orders-style thread plying machine", we rub cloth seaweed, bracken seaweed or other vegetism thicking agent by manual labor, and thread to use for "shoi" be crowded.

    Raw materials

    Assume thread to use silk thread which spins, and has thread or materials which are equal to these of raw silk, dupion silk or silk floss.

     

     

  • Work scenery

    Work process of Tokamachi Gasuri is divided complicatedly. Raw materials add splashed pattern to silk thread by silk. We make ruler to copy design into thread to soak splashed pattern and mark thread with expectation, sumi in it, and rubbing dye into cloth nde work to go is necessary for thread with dye with spatula called rubbing dye into cloth (stencil) spatula. We dye this thread and set warp (tateito) weft (when we come) to weaving machine to weaving machine and can finally enter texture. Texture is performed carefully while looking at position of splashed pattern of process (the vertical side). Finally we drop paste as finish and we inspect and are completed.

    Process 1: Design (the making of cloth with splashed pattern design production, ruler)

    Original design, by sample, locate pattern on graph paper, and make cloth with splashed pattern design, and set finely whether cloth with splashed pattern enters thread of which position. Then we pass and, based on the design, dismantle cloth with splashed pattern (vertical cloth with splashed pattern), lateral cloth with splashed pattern (wide cloth with splashed pattern) and make ruler.

    Video is played when we click image

    Process 2: We twist and refine

    Raw silk, dupion silk (with coping saw which says sinew thread, and there is much sinew, and is big. It is thread which we took out of cocoon made with two silkworms called dupion cocoon, and write) to thread plying machine and hang twist. Strength, thickness of thread become uniform by hanging twist. We refine and remove dirts afterwards.

    Process 3: Spreading by hand

    After having pasted to be easy to treat, we extend to the number and length that pass through thread which we wound off on bobbin and frame repeatedly at opportunity to be easy to extend, and were based on design according to cloth with splashed pattern, lateral cloth with splashed pattern by hand.

    Process 4: We attach sumi and strangle

    We pass and put cloth with splashed pattern, lateral cloth with splashed pattern, each cloth with splashed pattern thread and are enlarged to stand and put seals called ear indicating cloth at both ends of cloth with splashed pattern ruler together and touch sumi mark at position of splashed pattern.
    In addition, it is cotton yarn or binds part which made sumi mark of the warp and weft with flat rubber firmly. In this way, it is not colored on this part. We bind, and color falls out to part which we bound if one is weak, and it seems to be in uneven color.

    Video is played when we click image

    Process 5: Rubbing dye into cloth, dyeing

    In necessary place deleted ink effect, rubbing dye into cloth nde goes dye using rubbing dye into cloth spatula well each. We bind thread and lend and make jo and dye while rubbing with homespun thread (part which does not have cloth with splashed pattern) repeatedly. We stabilize color with steam approximately 100 degrees afterwards.

    Process 6: Preparations for texture

    Work varies according to the warp and wefts. The warp winds off for man winding (firewood) after kubiriotori untied while seeing pattern. Then we let go through on part called heddle eyes (is so like that) of weaving machine one by one and, as for by two, put it through reed (suppose). As this work has design of cloth with splashed pattern, it is performed carefully not to get a wrong turn. The standard number is around 1,200. We raise rewind, the small in shukuriwaku (teguriwaku) after kubiriotori untied weft as well as the warp and hang to stand (kookoshidai) and wind up to pipe for cloth last. Texture is finally ready and can finally finish weaving.

    Process 7: Texture

    Thread is tempted up and down by having got ready to put the warp through heddle eyes (so like that), reed (we suppose) of weaving machine, and ways to put weft through are created. During this time, weft comes and goes and it is woven and is embarrassed because the warp of top and bottom puts it. It is cloth with splashed pattern structure, and splashed pattern puts designs together on seeing part of ear which did mark suddenly and weaves even one not to make any gap. Finally we inspect dirt and texture irregularity.

     

  • Close-up

    Many designs that are made because it is woven

    Tokamachi Gasuri which spins silk thread carefully, and expresses texture, complicated design. Festival of delicate thread which traditional technique to breathe ceaselessly in snowy district weaves.

     

    The world that is created by weaving

    Uonuma district which is called tsumari (wife existence) because we are seen in the topography of going jamming seeing from plains of Niigata. Tokamachi is located in the whole area. According to writer Bokushi Suzuki of Echigo "snowy many countries are quite places where Echigo or both ancient book and person say in Japan. (omission), in our Uonuma county to live in, winter most are in abound condition because of snow from the outside to say with Japanese place where primarily snow falls. People who lived in time, this place of heavy snowfall lived by grasshopper (break off). Work of texture which there was of perseverance continued being performed simply because it was people who endured long winter, and spent time, and technique improved and was succeeded. Inherited Tokamachi Gasuri is Woven textiles which creates warm splashed patterns because the warp (tateito), cloth with splashed pattern of weft (when we come) intersect using silk thread. We asked Shigehisa Abe with qualification of Master of Traditional Crafts story this time.

    Tokamachi Gasuri, texture that warm.

    Place to go to part, change to breathe during history

    It is said that Woven textiles of technique called cloth with splashed pattern was woven in middle part in at least 18 centuries. Particularly, it is said to Tokamachi Gasuri that it may be technique developed originally because cloth with splashed pattern of cloth of white background was woven to bluish ground in Tokamachi in other districts whereas cloth with splashed patterns was mainstream. In addition, originally, in this whole area including Tokamachi, technique to make hemp cloth existed. It was called cotton crepe and received designation as Shogunate order shrinkage in Genroku, and this was praised to the skies as. However, the Shogunate gradually became financial difficulty when it became late in the Edo era, and cotton crepe that samurai and upper class were buyers received quite a few blow. Tool called new tall handloom (Takahata) was made by having been forced to switch of direction, and technique to weave silk Woven textiles called transparent silk cloth (plow) texture was brought about. Then we repeat improvement, and Tokamachi Gasuri will become current form. Abe who tells technique that has been succeeded in this way from ancient times "not to have possibilities to get along while making use of old technique in the times in the times." For example, to modern sense, it is said that we make article with subjects such as birds and beasts caricature. This "seems to be received very much by woman". In addition, besides, we produce various products including card case and accessory. However, there is also existing tradition rigidly. Therefore Tokamachi Gasuri which "we cannot imitate everywhere" is made.

    Cloth of Tokamachi Gasuri producing at Abe. Calm atmosphere

    Experience and knowledge are necessary

    Tokamachi Gasuri which we need for approximately three months before one kimono is done. It which "may not come to go just as want even if we have of dozens of times" is profound. Abe has been worried about "not agreeing even if we made even if we made.", too. It is only said that it is saying "it may be just correct with time hesitating about hesitation.". When thing which we piled up including much experience fitted in, we seem to come to be able to do it incidentally. Of course effort to repeat before "we come to be able to do it incidentally" does not attack imagination either. Such Abe is these days, and it is said, "there is thing which is made as we finally thought.". It is experience and knowledge to be important in making cloth with splashed pattern. It is said that it is important for it "to know principle". Following technique, to make a better one I see, is understanding shitekosonanoda in part deep most of things.

    As for such accessory

    Even if only oneself is satisfied, no use does not go well.

    "We buy thread and dye and make cloth with splashed pattern with it and they untie and weave cloth with splashed pattern in total. Though we send on side job, we all do only texture other than it by oneself. We wear raincoat immediately though I am doing such a clean appearance now and perform in the spot and work." Abe to go immediately again toward the factory if this talk is over. We let being heavy and heaviness feel, "oneself must lead." in remark contrary to light tone. "We began with place to never know and it was said, "we do" by all oneself and took charge. We can do anything if motivated." Craftsman spirit of Abe who said, "production center with pride remains." had a glimpse and got from the words.

    Card case which looks good to use for a long time

    Craftsman profile

    Shigehisa Abe

    It was born in 1929.
    We help father since the age of 18 years old and enter this world once though we become teacher.

    Gleanings

    Moment to feel joy to make

    When anyone sees that own work is used, person concerned with manufacturing will feel that we are glad. Abe who reported this time said saying "we are glad when we looked at person in own kimono.". But, in the case of Abe, the joy seems to be much more, too, "at first, "oh," hi ndeikimasuyo says that find. We go to side and see still in this way. Then, "excuse me, when though will think that is, bought" when person who hear, and wears kimono is strange, "no, true hakoreuchidetsukuttanodesuyo" competes “ when it is said, is good, is easy to wear. , "is said in this way; thing. By the way, it was light way of talking that we brought humor into.

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Tokamachi Gasuri
Phonetic symbol Town is ground on the tenth
Classification of industrial art object Woven textiles
Main product Kimono place, petty person in Japanese dress
Main production area Niigata / Tokamachi-shi, Tsunan-machi, Nakauonuma-gun
The designation date November 1, 1982

Contact information

■local production associations

Tokamachi Woven textiles industry cooperative association
〒948-0003
6-1-71-26, Honcho, Tookamachi-shi, Niigata
Cross 10 the fourth floor
TEL: 025-757-9111
FAX: 025-757-9116

http://www.tokamachi-orikumi.or.jp/

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

It is folk handicraft-like cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles that Tokamachi Gasuri lets traditional beauty and modern sense harmonize and makes. A lot of people loving luster peculiar to silk and the deep taste such as good texture of dough are worn in everyday life as arrival at lighthearted street clothes and fashion at home widely.

Tokamachi gasuri is a folk-style woven product that combines traditional beauty with modern tastes. There are many people who love Tokamachi gasuri’s ability to bring out the unique gloss and texture of silk, and wear the fabric as part of their everyday life. Whether it is a piece that can be casually worn while going out, or just something fashionable for home, Tokamachi gasuri fabrics provide something for every occasion.

How to make

Was warped beforehand; pass, and hang lateral cloth with splashed pattern thread to tension stand, and do rubbing dye into cloth textile printing (do) while moving according to color appointed in spite of being laying upon by process cloth with splashed pattern ruler made by design in turn. Then, we strangle place that print-dyed rubbing dye into cloth with cotton yarn or flat rubber firmly and dye colour of the ground by dip-dyeing (shinsen). After having passed through preparations process for weaving next, we finish weaving cloth with splashed pattern of process in spite of being laying upon by manual labor.

The warp and weft threads are first stretched across a frame according to a pre-defined pattern. While following the colors defined by the design, dye paste is rubbed into the threads with brushes as they are interwoven onto the frame. At the same time, cotton threads or rubber bands are tied around the individual threads to resist the dye using the ikat technique, and so create the designed pattern as additional layers of dye are applied. The threads are then prepared for weaving, and while aligning each warp thread by hand, the final ikat pattern is produced in the weaving process.

Voice from production center

Even thing which became old keeps pattern and color of cloth with splashed pattern alive, and how about, for example, recording life that is new as cushion, furoshiki, lunch parcel, vase caution money, cover of doorknob?