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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Shinshu TsumugiShinshu Pongee

Beginning of Shinshu Tsumugi dates back to the Nara era to woven "ashiginu".
Because each feudal clan of Shinshu recommended competitively early in the Edo era, sericulture became popular, and whole Shinshu prospered as Woven textiles production center of pongee, and a large quantity of pongee was sent to Kyoto every year.
However, production of silk pongee things burnt down afterwards and was slightly continued in the name of technical preservation until middle part of Showa. Because prefecture and the municipalities laid emphasis on revival of silk pongee thing after the war, production became active in whole throughout the prefecture, and fame of Shinshu Tsumugi gradually increased as high-quality cloth, too.

The origins of Shinshu Tsumugi go back to a silk cloth called ashiginu that was woven in the Nara period (710-794). Because of the rivalry and encouragement that the clans in the province of Shinshu were given, sericulture was very popular and the production of pongee throughout the province flourished, and every year large quantities of cloth were dispatched to Kyoto.
The production of this cloth then fell into gradual decline by the 1920s, only enough was being made to keep the skills associated with this cloths alive. After World War II, great efforts were made to revive the fortunes of this cloth not only by the prefectural authorities but by local authorities and communities, and production once again flourished throughout the region.

The making of cloth for top quality kimono followed and served to raise people's awareness of this fine cloth. Most of the cloth produced in various colors and patters is for kimono or obi. One extremely special cloth is woven from a silk obtained exclusively from wild silk worms.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Do with cloth with splashed pattern Woven textiles woven by the next technique or technique or island Woven textiles or Woven textiles which is similar to this.

     
    (1)
    Assume yarn-dyed plain weave.

     
    (2)
    Thread to use for the warp raw silk (include tussah.) You spin and perform way of, dupion silk or silk floss with thread, and thread to use to weft spins hand of dupion silk or silk floss, and do with thread.

     
    (3)
    Use "hand throw shuttle" for implantation of weft.

    2
    Staining of cloth with splashed pattern thread "binds hand"; niyorukoto.

    Raw materials

    You spin, and perform way of raw silk (including tussah), dupion silk or silk floss of thread to use with thread.

  • Work scenery

    Process 1: Cocoon, silk refinement

    As for the refinement of stewed cocoon by common lye and raw silk, it was replaced sulfite soda, refinement using soda ash once after 1926. However, refinement by lye is reviewed again from about 1950 and revives.
    We can let you have elegant luster when we refine by lye using straw ash supernatant liquid liquid or filtration liquid as K included in straw ash and other metal are adsorbed by fiber. It becomes Woven textiles with waist, and sound to rub against peculiar to silk comes to sound. It is important process to make taste of pongee better.

    Process 2: The making of silk floss

    There is corner silk floss to hang refined cocoon to silk floss, wooden frame which open at finger-tip of the hand, and did in form such as bag, and to make. The quality of quality of silk floss is related to choice cocoon and combination of raw materials cocoon. Silk floss from raw cocoon has pull and is the best to silk floss pongee. Dupion cocoon prevents appearance of NEP to silk floss, and boiled bones cocoon and substandard cocoon for spinning give luster and elasticity to silk floss in spring. As for the good-quality silk floss, 70-80% of dupion cocoons, good-quality boiled bones cocoon, combination of around 20-30% of substandard cocoons for spinning are basics in spring. Effect of silk floss decides quality of hand yarn.

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    Process 3: shubo

    We use fryer-type shuboki where twist does not relatively depend on when we spin thread from silk floss in Shinshu Tsumugi. Therefore taste of silk floss pongee is finished in shubo ginaradehano texture selling well. Unlike thread without uniform individuality with machine, we direct individuality that delicate difference in thickness of thread cannot provide shubo gideshika.

    Process 4: Dyeing

    It is process to boil thread with stain. The technique has been handed down to the dyeing with vegetable dyes method as dyeing by natural dye for a long time.
    We perform dyeing that we accepted using the trees and plants, fruit tree, nut produced each in season in the four seasons. We let you dry when the same dye can be dyed many times and do dark color development and we repeat dye different and enjoy fusion of color, and dyeing only by natural dye is attractive. What kind of color you finish dyeing in is chance to show skill of colorman.

    Process 5: Weave

    Handweaving by tall handloom (Takahata) is carried out in studio of Shinshu Tsumugi. If we step on step board and open the warp, we throw shuttle (hi) with one hand and let thread go through to the other side. We hit reed at the same time to let you step on step board if you catch shuttle and close the warp and do (osauchi) by one hand. We repeat these a series of movement. When plane is woven by expert craftsman, texture sound of comfortable constant rhythm resounds in studio.
    Hand comes to have good place of Woven textiles cracking down on by throwing, and spinning by shuttle and can prepare the best kimono accompanied by thickness and waist.

    Video is played when we click image

     

  • Close-up

    Shinshu Tsumugi which finishes weaving alms of the earth carefully

    Shinshu Tsumugi which is brought about by handwoven textiles which individuality of person weaving to hue of dyeing with vegetable dyes to come out of handwork and 1tan one appears. Power of Nature embraced in the Alps and true heart of person weaving are just jam-packed to this pongee.

     

    Shinshu Tsumugi which was born in "country of silkworm"

    Oldness and Shinshu of Shinshu Tsumugi are land where sericulture is prosperous for a long time to be called "country of silkworm" "country of silk". In addition, the trees and plants which became raw materials of dyeing with vegetable dyes in hills and fields of this area grew wild everywhere and were blessed with senzairyo. We call generic name of silk pongee of each place born in this way Shinshu Tsumugi.
    Attraction of combination of various threads only in "country of silkworm" and dyeing with vegetable dyes that is full of colors is characteristic of Shinshu Tsumugi. We visited Ina pongee which descended from this Shinshu Tsumugi this time, and continued protecting traditional traditional method of construction.

    Kind of the trees and plants is 10-15. It is easy to obtain, and preservation works and uses thing which some quantity can secure

    Reason to be particular about domestic raw silk

    All the raw silk which we are made to twist is domestic production. We may employ cocoon of sky silkworm bred only in Shinshu Hotakamachi. As well as "raw silk of import, we do not readily go well to twist raw silk of plural production centers either. It is so about dyeing. It is Akira Ota who is Master of Traditional Crafts of Shinshu Tsumugi that foreign thing seems to finish thread with a coat of dye, but domestic thread can let pigment of dye soak to the inside, and talk in this way. It is expert craftsman who is engaged in Shinshu Tsumugi, and is 25 years.

    Tradition of classic tall handloom

    "One which features Ina pongee as for the handwoven texture woven in tall handloom (Takahata) carefully." means Ota. Approximately 20 grasshopper (break off) craftsmen working in studio are all women now. That when let work around one year, understand human nature case well; drink, and it is said that individuality of person weaving appears. In addition, cloth made by handweaving gradually changes in texture that was correct in individuality of person to employ.
    "Look did machine texture well well, he/she makes, but freshness, strength, kenrodo degenerates while we pass through time". Longtime experience is necessary to make weaving Tatung Co., rhythmical sound called Tatung Co. Work that weaver uses the fingers from the physical whole. Therefore there is story to be hard to dement when the elderly remain weaver.

    Homespun with easy texture of nature. We are waiting still for woven time in tall handloom

    Charm of dyeing with vegetable dyes utilized blessings of nature

    We use local walnut, Japanese larch, wild cherry tree, white birch, yew, apple for materials of dyeing with vegetable dyes. We cut tree from tree to winter before bud appears and we bark and save. We soak thread in decoction of these bark many times and finish dyeing. Colors of resulting in are delicately different every time. "It is rare that color as we thought appears. Therefore Haruhide Kubota of this way 35 years tells, we match with the complexion of the other side (dye) in bright tone. The third generation of Kubota texture dyer business that Kubota weaves Ina pongee in Komagane-shi, Nagano. When "affinity does not weave thread which we dyed with chemical dye between good things, we quarrel, but even what kind of colors do not quarrel in interesting thing if it is dyeing with vegetable dyes. Therefore mind is easy." Rich hue can gain the variations to several thousand kinds by adjustment of mordanting method and the light and shade with simplicity only by dyeing with vegetable dyes. Furthermore, pair opens endlessly if we add pattern of texture. "We discover interesting patterns and are glad when we were able to make the above-mentioned thing which thought. And, we are transparent whether visitor is pleased,." but

    We want you to know good kimono

    "We do not know dressing and must prepare to hairstyle and shoes and do not wear kimono easily recently. We hear voice to be soft, and to be warm well when we hear story of person who wore. After all we want you to wear kimono." It is said that we are going to produce thing which sewed kimono to yard goods in future in Nagano Woven textiles industrial guild. "We are thinking about the making of clothes which we made use of texture of kimono in. If there is same ko and does shopping, are there not many people choosing many clothes of opportunity to wear?" Good kimono is to kimono, but the good point does not readily understand that we do not have you actually wear. Kubota said, "we want to sew clothes which we made use of charm of kimono." in eagerly.

    Craftsman profile

    urayabi*

    1935 Komagane-shi, Nagano birth.
    It becomes Shinshu Tsumugi Master of Traditional Crafts in 1981.
    It is veteran of this way 40 years until the talks from manufacturing to person wearing.

    Haruhide Kubota

    We are born in Komagane-shi, Nagano in 1945 and begin to help with business since the age of 18. It is 35 years following business. 1991 Master of Traditional Crafts authorization.

    Akira Ota

    1943 Ina-shi, Nagano birth.
    30 years when we have never met by the making of Shinshu Tsumugi. It becomes Master of Traditional Crafts in 1996.

    Gleanings

    Brightness sky silkworm of senryokushoku which wild animal gives off

    Is imagining thing called so-called indoor silkworm farm building up white silk thread not often found when we usually hear with silkworm? Silkworm, wild mulberry silkworm which were different from indoor silkworm farm in life were bred for a long time in Hotakamachi, Nagano. Wild mulberry silkworm of Mt. Hotaka is wild mulberry silkworm native to our country, and, as for the shiny elegant luster of senryokushoku made from the silk thread, there is beauty that we cannot provide with thread of indoor silkworm farm. Person called silkworm which emitted beautiful light of this nature "sky silkworm" (wind up). Sky silkworm is called "Queen of fiber" "diamond of fiber" from the rarity, and we are valued high, and Hotakamachi is the best production center of sky silkworm in Japan.
    Because, as for the silken gut, power that ratio be te dye attracts to silk yarn is small, of dyeing is done, and big difference occurs in, and create the unique light and shade, textures. This looks like cloth with splashed pattern-like and is liked from aspect designing that we devised as marbled beef shows. Furthermore, it is said to be "sky silkworm 3s" when we say and Woven textiles which we wove is strong and is worn in silken gut beautifully for three generations of pro-child, grandchild.
    (reference: Hotakamachi tourist brochure "silk thread of the sky")
    We would like inquiry about sky silkworm at the following.
    Hotakamachi government office business and industry sightseeing section TEL. 0263-82-3131
    Hotakamachi sky silkworm center TEL. 0263-83-3835

    • Silken gut called "Queen of fiber" "diamond of fiber" has elegance not to be seen to elegant luster and other fiber

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Shinshu Tsumugi
Phonetic symbol shinsyutsumugi
Classification of industrial art object Woven textiles
Main product Kimono place, obi, haori
Main production area Nagano / Nagano-shi, Matsumoto-shi, Ueda-shi, Okaya-shi, Iida-shi, Komagane-shi others
The designation date February 17, 1975

Contact information

■local production associations

Nagano Woven textiles industrial guild
〒399-4106
2-29, Higashimachi, Komagane-shi, Nagano
Kubota texture dyer business
TEL: 0265-83-2202
FAX: 0265-83-2204

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

As for the main product, things of various colored patterns are produced with two of "cloth" and "obi material" for kimono. Particularly, pongee of wild silk which we made with 100% Japanese oakworm moth is special product only for here.

The primary Shinshu tsumugi products are fabrics for kimonos and obi, with a wide variety of colors and patterns. Wild oak silk kimonos, which are 100% produced from the cocoons of Japanese wild oak silk moths gathered in the mountains, can only be found in Shinshu.

How to make

Shinshu Tsumugi is yarn-dyed flat Woven textiles. Thread to use for the warp does with one of raw silk or hand yarn (tetsumugiito) of dupion silk, silk floss which we have begun to pull in from cocoon which tussah, pupa two enter and it is dupion silk to weft or uses hand arm throw shuttle (hi) for implantation of weft using hand yarn of silk floss. In addition, dyeing of cloth with splashed pattern thread is shukatsu (kuku) riniyorimasu.

Shinshu tsumugi is a plain woven textile made of pre-dyed threads. The warp threads are made from either raw silk, wild oak silk, dupion silk taken from cocoons containing two pupa, or thread spun from silk floss. The weft threads are made from either dupion silk or silk floss, and are woven into the warp threads using a hand thrown shuttle. Ikat patterns are dyed by tying the dye resistant onto the threads by hand.

Voice from production center

There is little amount of production, but we eat sawtooth oak (sawtooth oak) and leaf of Japanese oak (Japanese oak) in the outdoors, and sky silkworm to prepare green cocoon into is thing only for Nagano. It may be said that deep luster to be said to be diamond of silk fabrics and lightness and robustness are right bloom of Shinshu Tsumugi.