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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Hagi YakiHagi Ware

In the origin of Hagi Yaki, we sail up in Terumoto Mori over the Korean Peninsula having gone back with local ceramist Shakuko Ri (rishakkou), brothers of sumomouyamai (rikei) with Hideyoshi Toyotomi 400 years ago.
When Mori moved castle to Hagi, ceramists went together, and Shakuko Ri was allowed to open kiln which baked article with bush clover. This kiln became beginning of Hagi Yaki. After the death of Shakuko Ri, sumomouyamai inherits kiln, and we receive the name of "Koraizaemon Saka", and the name is inherited to date by feudal lord.
Original style of Hagi Yaki was thing of the Rhee Dynasty, but work with original individuality that styles of hand-molded earthenware increased and knew current Hagi Yaki came to be baked afterwards.

Returning from a campaign with Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the Korean peninsular, the feudal lord, Mori Terumoto brought back with him to Japan two Korean potters, Li Sukkwang and Li Kyong. It was these two brothers who were responsible some 400 years ago for doing work, which marked the beginnings of Hagi Yaki.

When Mori Terumoto took up residence in a castle in Hagi, permission was granted to Li Sukkwang to build a kiln to make pieces of pottery especially for the fief. The results were the first real pieces of Hagi Yaki. After Li Sukkwang died, his brother continued the work and the feudal lord of Hagi gave him the Japanese name Hagi Kouraizaemon, a name which continues to be used to this day.

Early pieces of Hagi Yaki owed much to the style of pottery which was being made in Korea at the time. Gradually, however, such things as a raku or rustic character was added and this developed into a highly individual style, which is still in use today.

Perhaps its most distinctive feature is its rustic quality, which is partly the result of little shrinkage during firing. Added to this, the finished ware is highly absorbent. Being so absorbent means that gradually as a piece is used for tea or sake over the years, it becomes stained and changes color. It was this phenomena which was particularly admired by tea aficionados and was termed cha-nare, literally meaning ""tea maturing"", indicating that as a piece is used, it takes on an aesthetically pleasing matured appearance.
Another feature is its simplicity of form and decoration. In fact, Hagi Yaki almost never has any under- or overglazing painted decoration. Instead, its true appeal comes from the way the potter makes full use of what effects he or she knows can be expected during the firing in a noborigama, or ""climbing kiln"". This is especially true of how various combinations of clay will react, the application of glazes, and marks made with modeling tools.

The main items produced these days include various types of ornaments, pieces of tableware, vases, and cups, bowls and pots for tea.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Mix womb soil by elutriation.

    2
    Molding is thing by potter's wheel molding, hand twist molding, direct copy molding, tatara molding.

    3
    When do design charge account of basis material, carve engobe, brush eyes, inlay, pressing a flower design in intaglio, thing by chamfering.

    4
    As for the glaze hook, "ladle takes" "take zubu"; or is thing by "not finished blowing". In this case, glaze has with "iron glaze" "straw ash glaze" "tree ash glaze".

    5
    Kiln filling is thing by balance heaping up, shelf heaping up, sheath heaping up.

    Raw materials

    It be said that potter's clay to use has materials which are equal to avenue soil, Mineyama soil, Mishima soil or these.

  • Work scenery

    Process 1: Soil sample

    Potter's clay becoming basics of Hagi Yaki is avenue soil (daidotsuchi), kinhodo (we see, and cook soil), three of Mishima soil (see island soil). We make womb soil to combine these, and to use for making earthenware. We mix soil of the location of pottery called ground soil and, other than three kinds of soil becoming basics, may provide original soil taste.

    Process 2: We filter water

    We dry until it becomes white and crush soil sample. We combine kinhodo with avenue soil which we crushed and put in the water tank and we stir and move muddy water of the upper air to the next water tank. Gravel is left at the bottom of the first water tank then. With the same point, we move muddy water to water tank from water tank many times.
    We draw soil which precipitated at the bottom of the last water tank and put in the height bowl of unglazing and we dry moderately and make potter's clay. "Water filters" this process; toiimasu.

    Process 3: We step on soil

    We knead soil when moisture falls out moderately and sleep. We let air bubbles of the inside and are work to equalize state of potter's clay, and to give the moderate softness.
    With bush clover, "soil covering short" to step on soil with foot as method from ancient times, and to regulate is performed. We put soil on step of boarded place and continue stepping forward for several hours. We mix Mishima soil and ground soil at this time.

    Process 4: Soil fir tree

    We knead soil by hand this time and sleep when we finish "soil covering short". "Soil fir tree" means this work. When this is not performed enough, pore occurs in work, and crack and distortion occur. Creator checks condition of soil by "soil fir tree", and state that it is easy to mold can be regulated well. Of "soil fir tree" rub, and addition and subtraction are different individually. It is work that is important for creator so that it is said, "it is difficult to do with soil which another person rubbed".

    Process 5: Molding

    We make form with potter's clay which we finished of soil fir tree.
    For molding, there is various expression technique including "tatara molding" to turn potter's wheel, and to make form, and to make form with potter's clay which did into "direct copy molding" using model and a board form including "hand twist molding" to make form by hand "potter's wheel molding".

    Process 6: Dry in the shade

    Work which we finished of molding dries shade for two or three days.

    Process 7: Finish (sharpen)

    We sharpen unnecessary part with plane and fix form to some extent when moisture falls out.
    Hill of bowl begins to reduce work with plane in spite of being mawashi on potter's wheel again and grows. Hill is important part considered to be point of appreciation of bowl of Hagi Yaki. Even expert creator is nervous about hill structure.

    Process 8: Finish (engobe)

    While it is half-dried, slurry which dissolved white soil with water is put work that we finished finish of molding on. This processing is called "engobe".
    When we combine soil with much iron content such as Mishima soil a little too much, we regulate surface hue by "engobe" because baking becomes blackish.

    Process 9: Unglazing

    After having dried work that we finished finish, enter kiln and bake degree at temperature of around 700-800 degrees Celsius for 15-16 hours. Unglazing means this process. We facilitate hodokoshiuwagusuri which is the next process by doing unglazing and prevent burr of glaze at the time of burning.
    When we perform unglazing, we gradually light so that temperature in kiln does not suddenly rise. Control of the force of a fire due to firewood is difficult, and mastery of skills is necessary.

    Process 10: hodokoshiuwagusuri

    We hang glaze in work after unglazing. Depending on work, we may burn in state that "we hang live", and to is called by that hodokoshiuwagusuri does without making bare roast.
    We change in vitreosity, and glaze covers up appearance of work by burning. Glaze which is generally used in Hagi Yaki includes ash glaze and straw ash glaze. Ash glaze mixes ash with feldspar with glaze finished transparently and grows. With finished glaze which straw ash glaze is milky, and is opaque, we add straw ash to materials of ash glaze and grow. Thing using straw ash glaze includes white bush clover to representative thing.
    Soak work in method of hodokoshiuwagusuri in glaze, and make hodokoshiuwagusuri; "take zubu", and is about to carry away glaze using ladles; "hang ladle"; nadogaarimasu.

    Process 11: Kiln filling

    We fill burning room of kiln with works which we finished of hodokoshiuwagusuri. Kiln of Hagi Yaki is consecutive bunch type ascending kiln which ranges so that small burning room climbs slope of mountain of 3-5 bunch.
    Traditional kiln filling of Hagi Yaki is method called "balance heaping up". We pick up plural works on stand which "we pile up balances" carries circular board on board in pipe and made in a good balance and are method to do it as for several steps like accumulation, tower, and to pack in kiln.
    Other than "balance heaping up," we put work in the container called "shelf heaping up" to make shelf with Sue board, and to display works and saggar (sheath), and there is "saggar heaping up" to pile this up, and to bake.
    If kiln filling is over, we leave casting into mouth of firewood and plaster doorway of burning room used in kiln filling with mud and brick.

    Process 12: Burning

    If doorway of all burning room is blocked up, we let fire from lower bunch sequentially. If time to take before is baked is different by number and weather condition of bunch, but is kiln of 5 bunches; is degree for 30-40 hours. We raise temperature of kiln to finally become 1,250-1,300 degree Celsius and burn. Meanwhile, creator cannot leave kiln.
    Color of the completion is different in flame which we put firewood slowly and made when we bake by flame which even glaze of the same compounding puts firewood frequently and made when we bake. Creator ascertains space skillfully and puts firewood to bake with color just as wanted.
    While we continue putting firewood, color of flame in kiln whitens. This is indication of 1,250-1,300 degree Celsius. Pick the right time when become temperature to find, and anticipate roast sample called "Shikimi" where can enter in the depths of kiln, and draw from hole, of glaze dissolve, and confirm conditions. In timing to draw timing and "Shikimi" to put firewood on, we perform all on seeing flame in kiln. Even if making certain of such a flame is an expert so much, we are said to be difficult.
    If "Shikimi" is in condition to understand, we stop injection of firewood and we seal slit and lose fire. We just leave unattended for twenty-four hours to three or four days and wait for heat of kiln to cool down naturally.

    Process 13: Getting out kiln

    We disturb sealed slit when work gets cold enough and take out work.

     

  • Close-up

    Skill - Hagi Yaki of the skill and person of flame connected with each other

    One pleasure, two bush clovers, three Karatsu. Hagi Yaki has been enjoyed as tool of tea ceremony for several hundred years. Glaze-like which is full of taste and expressions of soil letting you feel the softness as for having been said that we match tea ceremony. It is flame of kiln to produce them. Creator is to repeat experience and acquires art controlling flame. Because flame and the skill of person become one, presence only by Hagi Yaki is created.
    We visited kiln of Sanzaemon Kaneda who brought up many pupils while we produced and continued being active who was full of kitsuzukerukoto 60 rest of life, oneself grilled in Hagi Yaki and watched story.

     

    Tea ceremony and Hagi Yaki

    "At first it is Matcha say so tea break" and to have been provided. We realize nature of the locality of bush clover that tea ceremony is familiar to place where Matcha comes out to service casually.
    Creator of Hagi Yaki has many people enjoying tea ceremony. Potter introduces teacher to craftsman at oneself, and it is said that it is not unusual to let you go to learn tea as part of work. In interchange with tea ceremony, creator became master by oneself and were devoted so that better thing was burnt. Such character is inherited among current creator.

    Bowl of tea ceremony values not only appearance but also good feeling when we pick up and used. Of extra decoration charm of Hagi Yaki is condensed by bowl that form and glaze-like controls presence as much as there is not. In form of ceramic ware that there is number "after all bowl is difficult most; Kaneda says that is unpleasant".

    Charm of Hagi Yaki which flame makes

    Delicate glaze-like is one of the big charm of Hagi Yaki. White glaze working on the external color having a gentle caliber, the heliotrope which rises here and there. Change of such a color is caused by malformed china. With malformed china, we say that reaction that is different from normal glaze-like gets up by condition of fire when we put in the kiln. White spots such as light of firefly which is occasionally seen in the surface of Hagi Yaki are created by malformed china.
    When we bake work, as for the creator, it is said that we can raise malformed china intentionally by calculating position to put in kiln. However, all does not progress just as wanted.
    "But there may not be next in the same way when good thing is burnt before. Conversely, unexpected malformed china may occur. There is interesting place of ascending kiln. By the same kiln, color changes by rotation of fire, and it is sometimes pulled to fire, and form is warped, too. But Kaneda smiles saying it is said that person from intellect tchoru has good it and buys Hagi Yaki and depends. If there are eyes to see wonderful skill that entwining each other of the skill of person and the skill of flame produces to buyer, it gives life to the skill of creator, too.
    Charm of Hagi Yaki is brought about at place that does not arrive of person in kiln of the hand. However, it is the skill of person to bring work created from there close to limitlessly own aim.

    The skill of person making use of flame

    Hagi Yaki is still often burnt by traditional ascending kiln. Other than ascending kiln, gas kiln and electric kiln are used, too. Gas kiln and electric kiln face to be stable, and to make thing of the same atmosphere, but are not born if work for change by flame and ash is not ascending kiln.

    Different, but time that burning in ascending kiln takes is almost 24 hours at Kaneda by size of kiln. We work as fire watchman in constant attendance the other day. Heat is important element to select the result of ceramic ware as. We are skillful with * of kiln, and outcome of malformed china changes even if we burn the same soil, the same form, thing of the same glaze if color changes.
    In the case of ascending kiln, temperature and force of fire control in thickness and timing of firewood to put. Kaneda makes sure of it with color of flame. Only one's eyes are work of support.
    How long will it become if we acquire experience if we will be ascertained? In such a question, Kaneda laughs and repeats, "it still has not yet come". The depths of ascending kiln seem to be deep so as to work as great veteran of this way 60, and to let you say that you do not finish yet ascertaining.

    Sample called Shikimi. In place that ascertained color of flame, we draw out Shikimi from small window beside kiln and see doneness. It becomes the kama* kiga end there if we understand.

    It is work of charges of next to charges of next

    By imperial blessing crowd of Kaneda (tenchozan) kiln, Masataka of son works on production, too. Work of Masataka displayed by the gallery is very different from thing of Kaneda in style.
    In order, "thus, to become gen wanyonishichoru with way of son to son." Even if Kaneda thinks that it is different from oneself in way of Masataka, we do not take it out in mouth. It is said that it is the same state for inheritor in pottery of any place. "You may think, "it is good", stop by if completed. But such Kaneda looks glad in some way though we do not say to the person.
    As for the Hagi Yaki, it is said that the outbreak was ceramic ware which is sensitive to passage of times from the first. We adopted the fashion quickly not to fall behind Edo and changed the style. Thing which survived is inherited as tradition in molding that became trendy in now in each time.
    "This laughs at Kaneda to son with shu wanyanaran". It was a word to let you feel that you were alone of creator of Hagi Yaki which Kaneda continued also turning into with the times.

    Craftsman profile

    Sanzaemon Kaneda (we served)

    It was born in 1920. We study under Tokuzo Kaneda of the imperial blessing mountain kiln fifth generation that is Rei Yamagata Shu, uncle in 1940. A lot of winning a prize winning one water society of 1973 first, being selected by various industrial arts exhibition including Japanese Traditional Craft exhibition.

    Hagi-shi culture prize for encouragement, prize for Hagi-shi industry service, sankuchikensenshojusho

    Japan Kogei Association regular member, member of association of bush clover ceramist

    Gleanings

     

    Innocent bowl of clear color taste changes in bowl of bitter atmosphere that calmed down while we use for years. Person knowing ceramic ware calls state that Hagi Yaki puts time on beautifully "varying of bush clover".

    Bowl of Hagi Yaki is made with womb soil of rough soil taste. The soil taste becomes attractive one of the Hagi Yaki, but permeable; collect, and tea or liquor are easy to soak from gap of small crack called crackle which entered surface glaze. While it uses for a long time, it is that purpose that glaze-like changes.

    We individualize state of penetrating, and color that tea liquid which we got into left shows like pattern and causes color stain with fun.

    Of color soak, and very varies according to how to handle master. We give water to caliber enough before using and we wash in water after the use well by hand and completely transfer moisture in naturally drying. But it is said that important thing is what we continue using let alone such basic handling to make fugo better. If "we value too much and do not use, just because of excellent bowl which is how much, we die".

    We care for properly and use for a long time. Hagi Yaki lets you enjoy expression to change endlessly let alone "seven" by doing so.

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Hagi Yaki
Phonetic symbol We tear off and bake
Classification of industrial art object Ceramics
Main product Tea set, vase, tableware, decoration article
Main production area Yamaguchi / Hagi-shi, Nagato-shi, Yamaguchi-shi, Abu-cho, Abu-gun
The designation date January 30, 2002

Contact information

■local production associations

Association of bush clover ceramist
〒758-8555
Hagi-shi, Yamaguchi 510, Emukai
The person in charge of Hagi-shi business and industry sightseeing department business and industry promotion section Hagi Yaki, ceramic art
TEL: 0838-25-3638
FAX: 0838-26-0716

http://hagi-tougei.jp/

■We visit production center from foreign countries
Image
Hagi Yaki - production center visit article

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

There is big characteristic of Hagi Yaki in soft soil taste with a little grilled cracking down on and high water absorptivity. Because water absorptivity is high, tea and liquor penetrate while we have been using for many years, and color of bowl changes. This change is called "tea habit" among people enjoying tea ceremony and is enjoyed. Other characteristics include simplicity of form and decoration. In most cases, we are not painted. Condition, spatula eyes are made for combination of soil becoming womb soil, one of glaze by action of ascending kiln after having assumed that we bring about various expressions to keep the charm alive.

The main features of Hagi yaki is its soft sheen with less thermal shrinkage and its high water-absorbing properties. Because of its high water-absorbing properties, if vessels are used over the course of many years, tea and liquor will seep into them causing their color to change. Among tea ceremony connoisseurs this change in color is known as “chanare” and it is very much appreciated. Another characteristic is the simplicity of forms and decorations. In most cases the pieces are not painted. Since the blend of clay used, glazing conditions, spatula marks, etc., will all produce various patterns as a consequence of being baked in ascending kilns, all pieces are designed to make the best use of this peculiarity.

How to make

Called avenue soil, there Mishima soil on the basis of kinhodo and ground soil combine local soil, and make clay to use for making earthenware. Molding includes potter's wheel, hand twist, direct copy, tataranadono technique and puts finish such as engobe, inlay, sculpture for work made by them and does bare roast. After the unglazing, we perform hodokoshiuwagusuri. To glaze, we burn in hodokoshiuwagusurigo, ascending kiln using transparence or white glaze. As for the part which conflicted with flame in kiln, glaze-like changes, and this change is called "malformed china".

Mishima-tsuchi clay and a local clay called Ji-tsuchi clay are added to the main ingredients, Daido-tsuchi clay and Mitake-tsuchi clay, to create a pottery clay for manufacturing the pots. After the clay has been molded into pots by a variety of methods including turning on a potter's wheel, molding by hand, tatara, etc, engobes, inlays and engravings are applied and the pots are bisque-fired. After bisque-firing, glaze is applied. After the pots have been glazed with a transparent or white glaze, they are then baked in an ascending kiln. Once in the kiln, the glaze tone on the parts that come into direct contact with the flame changes; this change is referred to as “yohen."

Voice from production center

Many potteries are in Hagi. You go to visit, and please find Hagi Yaki only for oneself.