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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Satsuma YakiSatsuma Ware

Satsuma Yaki was begun in the days of position of Bunroku, the Keicho era by ceramists of the Rhee Dynasty which feudal lord Shimazu at the time brought back from Korea.
Thereafter we are brought up, and polish original development by effort not to have flabby ceramists and we bring about system of different style called kenyakei, dragon Moji system, bed for rice seedlings river system and, during long history for more than 400 years, tell climate where Kagoshima is rich in Satsuma Yaki in now. In 1867 (Keio 3), Satsuma Yaki attracts European people in Paris World Exposition that Shimazu feudal clan exhibited alone; in the world of "SATSUMA" became known.
Pottery exists throughout the prefecture and produces works which concentrated various technique now.

The origins of Satsuma Yaki date back to the 16th century. The local feudal lord, Shimazu, returned from the Korean peninsular with some potters who helped to get things started.
The wonderful surroundings of Kagoashima have contributed greatly to the development of this ware during its long history spanning some 400 years. During this time, the tireless enthusiasm of the local potters has resulted in a number of original developments, which have given rise to a number of individual styles that are still in production today. In 1867, the Shimazu clan independently entered some pieces of Satsuma Yaki in the Great Exhibition in Paris. People in Europe were enchanted and soon the name of Satsuma became known throughout the world.

Today kilns producing work embodying a great variety of techniques can be found all over the prefecture.

One of the features of this ware is the great variety of different types of pottery, which are being produced. There are, for example, six individual wares of a traditional lineage, namely Katano, Ryumonji, Naeshirogawa, Nishi-mochida, Hirasa, and Tanegashima. In addition, white Satsuma Yaki, black Satsuma ware and pieces of porcelain make up the three main groups of products being made in the area.

With a faint yellow ground, white Satsuma Yaki is a plain glazed pottery, which is covered all over with fine crazing. Colors, enamels and gold-work are then applied.

Black Satsuma, on the other hand, is a colored pottery done with black, dark brown or amber glazes and has a darkish brown base color because of the iron-rich clay, which is used.

The range of products is, of course, vast and includes all kinds of tableware, vases, decorative items and then special tea ceremony items and drinking sets.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Molding drains bag which sharpen, and does forming finish and wet wiping finish of the whole surface of basis material so that potter's wheel molding, direct copy molding, string made molding, tatara molding or basis material has property that is equal to case by these molding methods; thing by molding.

    2
    When do design charge account of basis material, write, and drop, and fly, and wear plane, inlay, Mishima hand, and, comb eye, eyes, engobe, itchin, chamfering stick; thing by openwork, pressing a flower design in intaglio or carving.

    3
    When do china-painting with underglaze color; thing by freehand drawing. In this case, assume paint asbolite paint or china-painting with ferrous pigment tool.

    4
    Is about to drain or soak glaze hook; thing by credit. In this case, assume glaze transparent glaze, ash glaze, iron glaze, copper glaze, shark glaze, lapis lazuli glaze or white glaze.

    5
    When do overglazing; thing by freehand drawing. In this case, assume paint paint or gold colored picture tool in multi-colored porcelain.

    Raw materials

    1
    As for the potter's clay to use, it be said that we have materials which are equal to "stepladder sand" or these "Iimori clay" "Izakuda clay" "Kasasa clay for chinaware" "Narikawa Shirato".

    2
    As for the makeup soil to use, it be said that we have materials which are equal to "Amakusa clay for chinaware" or these "Narikawa Shirato".

     

  • Work scenery

    We greatly divide into Satsuma Yaki, and there are white Satsuma and black Satsuma.
    Here, we introduce production process of white Satsuma.

    Process 1: It is made with tsukido (haido)

    tsukido is soil becoming material of Ceramics and crushes raw materials finely and says thing which we mixed. In white Satsuma, we combine several kinds of soil and make tsukido.
    Translucent lemon yellow only in white Satsuma is created by combining other soil with Shirato becoming main material skillfully.

    Process 2: Elutriation (suihi)

    Enter water tank and stir tsukido and move muddy water of the upper air to the next water tank. Gravel is left at the bottom of the first water tank then. With the same point, we move muddy water to water tank from water tank many times.
    We draw soil which precipitated at the bottom of the last water tank and can enter caliber and we dry moderately and make potter's clay. "Elutriation" means this process.
    In white Satsuma, smooth potter's clay which repeated elutriation carefully is used.

    Process 3: Molding

    We make form of product with completed potter's clay.
    For molding, there is various technique including gypsum mold and "model raising" using unglazing model "hand twist" to turn potter's wheel, and to make form, and to make form "potter's wheel molding" by hand. Most of works are made now by "potter's wheel molding".

    Process 4: Finish of drying, molding

    After molding, we are dried for a while. In dry place, we sharpen unnecessary part with plane and fix form to some extent. In addition, we perform decoration with sculpture or spatulas such as openwork or relief while it is half-dried.

    Process 5: Drying

    After finish of molding, we begin process of unglazing in or enough hot-air drying moisture to naturally dry caused by the sun after removing.

    Process 6: Unglazing

    We put product in the kiln, and degree burns at temperature of 750-850 degrees Celsius for 15-16 hours. Unglazing means this process. We bake firmly and have a firm soil by doing unglazing, and glaze becomes easy to get on.
    In cool place, we improve appearance and, after baking, get rid of roughness and smooth off.

    Process 7: hodokoshiuwagusuri

    We hang glaze to product that we finished polishing. Glaze changes into a glass form when burnt and covers the surface of product.
    In white Satsuma, we use finished glaze with luster with transparence.
    Is about to spread "shinkakari" to dip caliber into glaze, and to hang and glaze in method of hodokoshiuwagusuri using ladles; "drain, and there is kakari".

    Process 8: This roast

    Enter kiln if we finish hodokoshiuwagusuri and burn at temperature of 1,230-1,260 degree Celsius more than 12 hours.
    Glaze vitrifies by this roast and covers the surface of container, and basis material has a firm roast more than unglazing.
    Surface careful crack called "penetrating" (kannyu) that it is one of the characteristics of white Satsuma occurs in process when product gets cold after this roast.

    Process 9: Overglazing

    We make painting on plain white Satsuma that was over of this roast. At first we create line drawing and paint line drawing in color afterwards. Work representing line drawing "draws the rib" with Satsuma Yaki and is called saying coloring is saying "it includes color".
    We put thing which finished painting in the kiln and we bake at temperature of 720-800 degrees Celsius for around six hours and print paint on the surface. *Goldwork (we draw gold)
    After printing overglazing when we give gold ware, we perform after taking out of the kiln, and cooling. After "we draw gold" with golden paint or having put "the gold height", we can enter kiln again and print gold at temperature of 600-680 degrees Celsius.

    Process 10: Completion

    We fix hi binadoo of roughness and glaze of bottom if we finish overglazing and enameling of goldwork.
    It is completion in this.

     

     

  • Close-up

    Satsuma Yaki toward ceramic ware production center going one step

    It is dotted with potteries amounting to one hundred now in Kagoshima. If there is potter inheriting the history and tradition of several hundred years, there is young pottery which we just began. If things producing each are different, production postures are different, too. It is ceramist, Takafumi Saigo of Director Sue, Kagoshima work cooperative association Hatsuyo to play a role to gather up those a variety of producers. We heard story from Saigo about work of oneself and current Satsuma Yaki.

     

    Way to ceramist whom relationship of person led

    Satsuma Yaki is ceramic ware with traditions more than 400 years. Saigo continues working on production in that for 30 years. We worked in the industry of with-it-ness called apparel maker before casting the body in the world of ceramic art. It which "created things from open place while reading point of the times" was work of Saigo. Work was substantial happily, but image to "return home sometime" did not disappear from Saigo who is the eldest son.
    As a result, words that "even ceramic ware did not do it if we returned to Kagoshima sometime soon", or appeared from mouth of teacher of art in the junior high school times moved Saigo. Ariyama who is teacher took the teaching profession once, but we retire and are person who inherited pottery which is the parents' house. We were by this Ariyama, and Saigo went to see Nitten at the age of university student for the first time. Therefore Saigo is surprised at many novel ceramic art works which we saw, and it is said that we were impressed. However, impression was forgotten all too soon, and interest was put away in the depths of heart. It was word of Ariyama to have reminded of interest to ceramic ware which we forgot.
    Saigo who returned home on chest in such thought that "might be interesting as for the ceramic ware" having entered the company parents' house "Chotaro ware main branch of a family" of Ariyama. Teacher of the junior high school era became teacher of ceramic ware this time.

    We do not make thing similar to another person

    Under vermilion and the black lacquer of Satsuma Yaki
    Is one of the traditional technique; "abomination glaze
    (dakatsuyuu) (association with scale of snake
    The finish with seru three-dimensional impression is *
    Sign) is given. Paint with lacquer
    When baked; "abomination glaze" of the groundwork is appendix
    Work (Sue womb Laquer Ware) which re, chubby three-dimensional impression were reflected on

    It is traditional pottery having the history of 100 years when "Chotaro ware main branch of a family" is known as the head family of "black Satsuma". Here, Saigo learned production technology of "black Satsuma". In "black Satsuma," color taste of jet black and wet temperaments are characteristic with traditional ceramic ware using soil and glaze of Satsuma to raw materials.
    Saigo became independent after study of footrail five years and opened kiln. It is "nichiokinanshukama" becoming base of production activity now. Saigo produces "black Satsuma" of the "Chotaro ware main branch of a family" training and two types of grilled dishes called ceramic art art full of originality here.
    Production policy of Saigo "not making thing same as another person." One of the works that such a thought was reflected has "Sue womb Laquer Ware". "Sue womb Laquer Ware" refers to Laquer Ware which we make lacquer on grilled dish and finished. It is one of the industrial art objects without opportunity to see too much. It is Laquer Ware and is ceramic ware. Despite one kind of ceramic ware, there is not thing that generally we burn thing which has applied lacquer. However, we put kiln again, and Saigo does ceramic ware which applied lacquer boldly and bakes. Lacquer gets into minute hole in the surface of ceramic ware by doing so and unifies with ceramic ware. It is technique to never hit on in producers of Laquer Ware. Idea itself to bake lacquer is art.
    "Ceramic ware and lacquered collaboration" and work to recite by oneself rise in novel strength born from encounter of thing which there is not which we should come across called "flame and lacquer".

    The point of contact with traditional Satsuma Yaki and ceramic art art of modern Satsuma

    Saigo is artist challenging possibility of ceramic art and is creator of "black Satsuma" that we studied in classic pottery. After having opened kiln by oneself, as leader of young potter, we were concerned with the making of base of sales activities positively. Based on such a background, Saigo analyzes the Satsuma Yaki industry.
    In the industry of Satsuma Yaki, craftsmen and artists with very high technique having sharp artistic sensitivity are mixed. Whether Satsuma Yaki which we fitted in the times by putting each good place of these groups which there was little of interchange together is not born Saigo thinks until now.
    We want to try such skill and collaboration of sensitivity in not only the industry but also foreign countries. Saigo says, "we want to let Satsuma Yaki split open" by doing so.

    Gallery in site of nichiokinanshukama. Work as ceramist and two types of works including life sloppy container of traditional black Satsuma are displayed. As well as work of oneself, works of thing which we purchased at other production centers and younger brother who is ceramist are displayed

    Producer who sets brand strategy

    We greatly divide into Sue, Kagoshima work cooperative association having Satsuma Yaki, and three types of creator participates. Kiln of artist bringing about work letting classic kiln which carries signboard of Officially designated Traditional craft products on its back, kiln taking role to spread Satsuma Yaki in the world widely for mass production, the future of Satsuma Yaki have a foreboding. Saigo grasps expertise of these three types of potters and is going to emphasize Satsuma Yaki in right person for the right place in the world. It right recalls me to brand strategy of apparel such as haute couture pret-a-porter collection. Saigo working as the helmsman is producer of Satsuma Yaki brand in point of fact. Saigo shows business sense that we trained in the apparel industry and performs business activity of Satsuma Yaki in battle front.
    As artist as businessman. We seem to follow still more for days when Saigo is busy.

    Craftsman profile

    Takafumi Saigo (saigotakafumi)

     

    Gleanings

    Amusement of visiting potteries

    Sea of emerald green, blue sky, southern country Kagoshima are treasure houses of ceramic ware. From traditional ceramic ware to modern ceramic ware, a great variety of works are created. As there are many potters accepting visitor, how about when we make a tour of potteries by way of drive.

    We are blessed with pottery preparing for program of ceramic art experience and participation type such as ceramic art classroom and beautiful views, and there is pottery adding cafe. It is pottery megurinaradeha of Kagoshima to be able to come across totally different types of ceramic ware in sequence.

    We issue "Satsuma ceramic ware map" by Sue, Kagoshima work cooperative association. Convenient one piece that introduction sentence and the location of potteries more than 60 were published in. Trip to thoroughly enjoy nature and ceramic ware of southern country to map one hand. Such a trip may be sometimes good, too.

     

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Satsuma Yaki
Phonetic symbol We burn Satsuma
Classification of industrial art object Ceramics
Main product Tableware, tea set, vase, bottle and cup, accessories
Main production area Kagoshima / Kagoshima-shi, Ibusuki-shi, Hioki-shi, Kajikicho, Aira-gun others
The designation date January 30, 2002

Contact information

■local production associations

Kagoshima Satsuma Yaki cooperative association
〒899-3101
5679, Hiyoshichohioki, Hioki-shi, Kagoshima
TEL: 099-292-5156
FAX: 099-292-5191

http://www5.synapse.ne.jp/satsumayaki/index. html

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

Characteristic of Satsuma Yaki is variety of kind of ceramic ware. As school based on tradition, there are six of kenyakei, dragon Moji system, bed for rice seedlings river system, west Mochida system, Hirasa system, Tanegashima system. In addition, we can greatly divide into white Satsuma, black Satsuma, three of porcelain when we classify from product. In white Satsuma, small crack called crackle covers the surface with earthenware which colorless glaze hung over in the light yellow ground. We make dyed pattern and picture, gold Aya onadode decoration on this. Because we use potter's clay that there is much iron content with earthenware which black Satsuma hangs various color glazes including black glaze, katsuuwagusuri, candy glaze and finished, the container womb does dark brown.

Satsuma ware has a variety of products. There are six historical line of brands of Satsuma ware: Tateno, Ryumonji, Inawashirogawa, Nishimochida, Hirasa and Tanegashima. They are roughly separated into white wares, black wares and porcelains. Shiro Satsuma (white ware) has pale yellow coloring with a transparent glaze. Its surface is covered with small cracks. It may be dyed, enameled or decorated with gold leaf. Kuro Satsuma (black ware) is made by using combinations of black or brown colored glaze. The body itself is dark brown since the clay contains iron.

How to make

White Satsuma combines several kinds of soil and makes potter's clay. Soil taste such as interval of white Satsuma unique porcelain and earthenware is born from this potter's clay. When we mix soil of raw materials and dissolve in water, we collect deposition and repeat work called "elutriation" (suihi) to be dried, and to take soil many times and make delicate potter's clay. We mold made potter's clay in technique such as potter's wheels and it is unglazed and we do this roast, overglazing after hodokoshiuwagusuri and complete in this way. Black Satsuma combines several kinds of soil and makes potter's clay, but uses soil sample which is different from white Satsuma. In addition, in unusual black Satsuma, we do elutriation many times like white Satsuma and may not mix soil with simple soil taste.

Shiro Satsuma is created from blended soil. This makes its unique color which makes it appear like a crossbreed of porcelain and pottery. A fine clay is created by elutriation, which is the repeats a cycle of mixing the clay with water, collecting the precipitate, drying them and mixing them with water again. The clay is molded by wheel throwing and other methods. The clay is biscuit fired, glazed and baked and then finished with painting. Kuro Satsuma uses different combination of soil from Shiro Satsuma. A clay is not elutriated when creating Kuro Satsuma, which gives them more rustic touch of the soil.