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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Hidehira NuriHidehira Lacquer Ware

We had our own way with power and financial power in Hiraizumi-cho, Iwate for last years of the Heian era, and, with Oshu Fujiwara who brought Buddhist art including Chuson-ji gold temple (chusonjikonjikido) on this ground, Hidehira Nuri was begun.
The history of several hundred years is not yet sure, but Laquer Ware is made flourishingly in Koromogawamura in the neighbor of Hiraizumi-cho from last part of Edo era and continues up to the present day since Fujiwara died out.

This lacquer craft really began when Ohshu Fujiwara wielded power over Hiraizumi in Iwate Prefecture toward the end of the Heian period (794-1185). It was he who lent this support to the building of the temple, Chusonji with its famous Konjikido and many fine pieces of Buddhist art in general.
Although Fujiwara's influence subsequently declined, by the end of the Edo period (1600-1868 ) the production of lacquer ware was in full flight in the village of Koromogawa near Hiraizumi and continues to this day.

The robust nature of this ware comes from its priming undercoat of local material. The decorative motifs are based on a very old bowl and therefore bear a distinctive Genji cloud motif and another called the yusoku hishimonyo, which is a diamond motif. Although the gold leaf decorations produce an initial response, on closer inspection the final top coat of black and vermilion lacquer and decorations, play their part in modifying the tone of the work and allow the true beauty of the lacquer to shine through. Bowls and trays are the mainstay of production, which is supplemented by the making of candy bowls, stacking boxes or jubako, tea items and flower vases.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    When it is to bowl in bare wood structure, as for the model form, it be said with "shukokata" by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    "Inner, peristome part becomes narrower"; tosurukoto.

     
    (2)
    Body part can attack "roundness".

     
    (3)
    Hill part assumes "increasing prosperity".

    2
    Groundwork structure is thing by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    When we look good with "this honesty base", "we help put on cloth", and, using hemp or lawn, "ground charge account" using base powder do "limit powder charge account" using thing which was able to mix base powder and dust and "be rusted" after oshita.

     
    (2)
    When you look good with "the lacquer basement ground", repeat that you do water grind when you apply thing which mixed purified unrefined varnish and whole purified black coat lacquer.

    3
    tourushi is thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Do "priming" and "average coat".

     
    (2)
    When we perform final coating of lacquer with haroiro coat again and are to bowl, do "final coating" with vermilion in outside black.

    4
    "We put foil" and decoration assumes "we draw cloud ground" "shukomoyo" by "lacquer block".

    Raw materials

    1
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

    2
    Bare wood is thing by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    When it is in turnery, do with material having materials which are equal to zelkova, hoo, tochi, beech or these.

     
    (2)
    When it is in armor-back held-flag, do with material having materials which are equal to zelkova, hoo, hiba or these.

    3
    Foil to use for decoration assumes money, purity of money is nine hundred and sixty six-1000ths thing.

  • Work scenery

    Hidehira Nuri greatly separates and is made from three processes. "Bare wood" before sawing with potter's wheel in form of bowl from beginning to cut of raw wood is "decoration" that "coating" to paint bare wood with lacquer describes design of cloud peculiar to Hidehira Nuri and puts gold leaf on. It is completed by technical cooperation of craftsman in charge of each process.
    In addition, lacquer produced locally of thing which has decreased now is painted Laquer Ware of Iwate that is known as production center of lacquer liquid for a long time with.

    Process 1: Tapping lacquer

    It is season when we can collect lacquer liquid from lacquered tree from June through October. Tapping lacquer craftsman runs about from the sunrise to the sunset in mountain and gathers lacquer liquid which damages tree, and oozes out.
    We collect lacquer from one lacquered tree once in four days and, during season, can adopt approximately 150 grams of lacquer liquid when we add up. This quantity makes bowl and is approximately 20.

    Process 2: We defeat ball limit, model

    We cut and bring down raw wood of process beech and tochi into a ring form and dry slowly and carefully for three years. Thing which we spend time and dried becomes hard to cause confusion of dimensions later.
    We more greatly than form of bowl sharpen coarsely. As we are broken when we sharpen according to dimensions suddenly and are transformed, we gradually sharpen while drying. We adjust so that moisture becomes around 20% and dry incense.

    Process 3: We saw bare wood

    We sharpen in form of bowl with potter's wheel. As thing without confusion is bought to bowl, we attach guide to potter's wheel and sharpen into a perfect circle form. At this time, it becomes easy to produce confusion in bare wood which we dried hastily. It is demanded that we spend time and make bare wood slowly.

    Process 4: Bare wood hardening

    It becomes process made with base from here.
    We paint bare wood which we add dimensions closely and have begun to sharpen with lacquer to stencil. As bare wood causes confusion in the case of process and use of later coating when bare wood breathes in moisture, we suppress penetration of moisture by bare wood hardening.

    Process 5: We help put on cloth and paint with the groundwork

    We wind cloth which let lacquer paste which kneaded lacquer and powder of rice soak to reinforce thin part, superior border (uwabuchi) and hill (whether like that) of bare wood.
    And we paint the whole bare wood with thing which we mixed special powder and lacquer paste called base powder with and we increase (ground coating) and be rusted on the top (rust pickles) and do strength. We say in painting bare wood with unrefined varnish and thing which we kneaded in dust to be rusted. All these are processes to make the strong groundwork.

    Process 6: Coating

    We paint with lacquer with coating, final coating and three phases in undercoating. We dry well once in humid room called lacquer bath whenever we paint. Lacquer bath is drying room using humid lacquered property, by the way, to dry.
    Before each coating process, we improve lacquered appearance that we dried in whetstone and let you be gritty so that lacquer to paint with next while sharpening big irregularities of the surface is easy to get on. Final coating is process to be nervous about in work of one dust lacquer ware maker whom we cannot follow most. Here is process of coating.

    Process 7: Decoration (kashoku)

    We copy design that we wrote in Washi Paper to bowl that final coating was over. To the painting, we draw design of cloud with cinnabar red lacquer. Furthermore, we stick gold leaf of lozenge on the top. Furthermore, we draw flower or fruit in the spring and summer between cloud and clouds. As this design is thing peculiar to few Hidehira Nuri elsewhere, it is called "shukomonyo". Hidehira Nuri is completed in this way.

     

     

  • Close-up

    Golden hishimonshukoto which conveys flowery Oshu culture in now

    Laquer Ware, Hidehira Nuri of Iwate that we conveyed technique and formality from the times of the Michinoku industrial arts culture prosperity to the present age and brought up. Hidehira Nuri which has been inherited in climate of Michinoku where wind and snow is severe is traditional dish that yushokuhishimon (we say) of money brings on tone and strength in color of rouge et noir.

     

    Visit ancestors of Laquer Ware of Michinoku

    We say that Hidehira Nuri is started in the times when Oshu Heian culture prospered distantly in the youngest times of Heian and are inherited. Unique lozenge-like gold leaf is inlaid Hidehira Nuri with, and this is done with design because of Laquer Ware which artisans invited from Kyoto in occasion of golden temple erection in the times of fujiharasandaishuko made.
    We let strength and tone that only thing which passed through the history in Hidehira Nuri which we be brought up to date and have been told from Heian, Kamakura, the times of Muromachi has feel.

    Hidehira Nuri Laquer Ware

    So that voice of person having you use actually works hard

    Brush rubs in one dust room which do not leave; only sound slightly sounds "". We heard story from Shoichi Iwabuchi who worked as painter for many years in such a room.
    Saying when "was the gladdest, visitor who had actually use told impression."; Iwabuchi. "We sometimes have nice words saying "we are beautiful and are easy to use", but may sometimes have severe words from eyes which got fat. We are good “ in such a case! Let's wear the better skill! "And willpower to say to polish the skill more and more are born."
    Work called craftsman does not have the end. You must continue always always polishing so that we challenge one step and own skill is not clouded anymore. It is Hidehira Nuri which is over time of 800 remainders year, and joined such thought together.

    "We want to use local lacquer."

    It may be said that it was land which Miyo Fujiwara performed the reign of in reason why the making of Laquer Ware prospered in Iwate, but it is big that lacquer was produced abundantly in the rich mountains of the neighborhood. Lacquered production of Iwate accounts for 75% of nation-wide even now. Unfortunately we depend on import for 90% of the whole lacquer used in the country. After all we are familiar with domestically local lacquer tree for craftsman using lacquer every day. "Anyway, it becomes strong container when we use lacquer produced in Japan. Affinity with bare wood seems to be good, too. Saying there are many Chugoku and import things from Southeast Asia, but there is much babul, and one of that place does not turn in Laquer Ware recently; as for saying is; Iwabuchi. We think that it is not only craftsman to overlook domestic lacquer.

    Calibers who painted with lacquer line up in lacquer bath

    Work of craftsman begins since before having begun work

    You must not touch to one dust device by process of final coating that is coating of finish in particular in coating. Therefore we do not miss careful cleaning of workshop before beginning coating every day. Game on the day has already begun at time for this cleaning for Iwabuchi. "Feeling is tightened when we begin wiping. We raise concentration little by little while hanging dustcloth. When we finish wiping, it becomes feeling "that, well, we paint" with It is the traditional skill to be completed only after being ready for such heart.

    We perform not only coating to Laquer Ware but also repair of national treasure

    Quiet space more than time

    Because we cannot put up dust during work, Iwabuchi minimizes movement of body. Lacquer is painted with in space that fell silent. And, one, container which we have finished painting with equals one again. Movement of air of room stops and learns illusion that seems to stop at time. It is even in this feeling, feeling that came back peacefully in instant when we think whether craftsman of the times of Heian put coating in similar stillness far. Tradition may be thing which we tie even not only the skill but also air and bring up.

    Suginami tree to golden temple.

    Laquer Ware to live for in the new times

    Hidehira Nuri which is made widely now in the prefecture. Originality to harmonize with modern life more is demanded while protecting grand pattern and traditional technique to introduce former brilliancy into in now. It is dish of Michinoku that continues giving color to live from Heian in Heisei.

    Craftsman profile

    Shoichi Iwabuchi (we hit rock Seoichi)

    Painter with experience of 25 years. "Feeling is tightened for coating when we begin wiping."

    Gleanings

    Novel "lacquer of shuko"

    sojo of main character that writer, novel of Kyozo Miyoshi join Laquer Ware plain wood worker of business to "lacquer tree of shuko" against own intention is gradually story to investigate the history of Hidehira Nuri while it is attractive and attracts and is crowded of lacquering. History inspection mingles with actual person in fiction here and there and arouses interest of reading person. In those days when this novel was written, the origin of Hidehira Nuri did not last to the times of Miyo Fujiwara distantly, and recognition with Momoyama was common among historians to the utmost. In novel, we go on a trip that sojo demands the origin of Hidehira Nuri in the times of Heian. After novel, brush with lacquer was found in the third son of wooden goods and Hidehira Fujiwara considered to have pushed gold leaf from historic spot survey by ancient city Hiraizumi, house trace assumed house of sensanrochuko. Fiction in reality?
    Is it not also wonderful we think 1,000 years ago, and to use Laquer Ware?

     

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Hidehira Nuri
Phonetic symbol hidehiranuri
Classification of industrial art object Laquer Ware
Main product Bowl, tray, cake bowl, nest of boxes, tea set, vase
Main production area Iwate / Morioka-shi, Hanamaki-shi, Ichinoseki-shi, Oshu-shi, Hiraizumi-cho, Takizawa-mura
The designation date May 22, 1985

Contact information

■local production associations

Iwate Laquer Ware cooperative association
〒020-0124
1-18-13, Kuriyagawa, Morioka-shi, Iwate
Company is wet, and industrial arts is inner
TEL: 019-641-1725
FAX: 019-641-9133

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

We use this close texture (honkataji) said to that base is the most durable. Decoration made a model of "shukowan" of Laquer Ware which has been conveyed from old days here, and "yushokuhishibunyo" (yuusokuhishimonyo) made with combination of form of cloud called "Genji cloud" and some lozenges is described. Very gorgeous design using gold leaf shows when we see a little, but we are the biggest and it is that finish that black of final coating painted with and cinnabar red lacquer and decoration controlled luster and can taste lacquer original beautiful luster when we see for fact hand.

Hidehira nuri uses hon-kataji, which said to be the strongest of lacquer base coatings. Based on traditional decorations long passed down in the region, the primary patterns of Hidehira lacquering are the “Genji gumo” cloud motif, and “Yusoku hishi monyo”, which is a combination of many diamond shapes. At first glance, Hidehira lacquered pieces may appear very gorgeous due to the gold leaf used in their designs. If the piece is taken in the hand and examined closely, though, it can be seen that the very top coat of black or red lacquer and decorations have a finish that suppresses any excess brilliance, which allows the natural glossy beauty of the lacquer to be fully enjoyed.

How to make

Depending on application, we process while drying tree of tochi zelkovas becoming material. We harden finished bare wood in unrefined varnish and put cloth on weak part and paint the top with thing which mixed powder that it is with unrefined varnish and base. And we paint with thing which we mixed dust and unrefined varnish which we worked out with water with when we repeat work to polish the surface in whetstone several times and smooth off the surface. We begin to polish the surface in whetstone if we finish this work and strengthen. We repeat work to sharpen the surface when we paint with black lacquer many times and paint with lacquer black last or cinnabar red lacquer and we describe cloud and stick gold leaf afterwards. Finally we attach dyed figure on cloth outside of cloud and complete.

First, the raw wood, taken from trees such as Japanese zelkova and horse chestnut tree, is prepared according to the product’s intended use. Once the wood is prepared, it is then hardened with raw lacquer. Any weak points are covered with a cloth, and then a mixture of raw lacquer and powder is applied to strengthen the area. The surface is then polished with a polishing stone numerous times to ensure it is entirely smooth. The piece is then coated with a mixture of polishing powder mixed with water and raw lacquer to prepare for the next stage. The surface is then polished and hardened again with a grindstone. Next, the piece is coated with black lacquer and then polished countless times, and then finally coated with a top coat of black or red lacquer. The cloud designs are then drawn, and gold leaf applied to the surface. Finally, the finishing designs are drawn outside the clouds, and the product is then complete.

Voice from production center

Please do not soak Laquer Ware into water for a long time. Please keep in suitable damp place where washes with tepid water, and does not get sunlight directly if we wipe off moisture. As repaint may be possible even if coating comes off, please consult once.