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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Yamanaka ShikkiYamanaka Lacquer Ware

We do by potter's wheel ban kiga opening that people of craftsman group where we emigrated to for good materials in the latter half of the 16th century performed.
The technique colonized around Yamanaka Onsen and, in the middle of Edo era, met a demand of people who came over to hot spring other than daily necessities such as bowl, tray and we made plaything for souvenir and sold, and Laquer Ware developed with hot spring, too. The first half of the 19th century contained technique of coating and technique of lacquer work, and the basics of current beautiful mountains takamakie (it is person who is mountain or can wind up) were built.

The origins of this craft date back to the second half of the 16th century, when a group of craftsmen moved into the area in search of good materials and began turning bowls and other things.
These craft skills took root in the vicinity of Yamanaka hot springs and by the 18th century, the development of the craft went in step with the hot springs as bowls, trays and a variety of other household as well as novelty items were being made and sold to those visiting the spa. During the first half of the 19th. century, maki-e technique of applying gold and silver powders was introduced and this became the basis of Yamanaka's own highly appealing raised maki-e technique.

Many lacquer ware craftsmen from Yamanaka continue to win prizes for their work, which draws such praise at exhibitions of traditional crafts, especially for pieces employing skills and techniques known as sensuji, a pattern in extremely fine lines, and another called zogan or inlay technique. Undoubtedly one of the special features of Yamanaka Shikki is the raised maki-e work that can be seen on bowls and other items. This is done by mixing gold or silver powder with lacquer before it is applied. Many people are now familiar with the way that Yamanaka Shikki sympathetically blends as sense of the modern with traditional sentiments. Much is still being made, including a wide range of tableware such as bowls, trays, coasters and stacking boxes or jubako used for food on festive occasions. A significant number of pieces for the tea ceremony, especially natume or caddies for the powdered green tea are also made.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Bare wood structure is thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    You use potter's wheel stand and birokurogannao, and mold.

     
    (2)
    Use "plain wood worker knife" to polish.

     
    (3)
    It is potter's wheel cancer and "plain wood worker knife" use thing made by "fire polishing".

     
    (4)
    When do decoration, "saw sinew"; niyorukoto.

    2
    tourushi is thing by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    After having rubbed refinement unrefined varnish when it blows and is to lacquer, you rub thing which mixed refinement unrefined varnish and seisei* roiro lacquer, and do "polish".

     
    (2)
    After having rubbed refinement unrefined varnish into bare wood directly without doing the groundwork when it is in mokumokuryuto, you do "mezuri", and apply refinement openwork lacquer.

     
    (3)
    When "red ocher ryuto" and "top coat" look good, "black lacquer," they finish with a coat of the groundwork "vermilion lacquer" "shuryuto" after doing, and having done average coat and average coat grind.

    Raw materials

    1
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

    2
    Assume bare wood material having materials which are equal to zelkova, mizume, tochi or pine or these.

     

  • Work scenery

    Generally, we can explain at four stages when process of lacquering greatly separates.
    At first "bare wood" which does timber conversion as dough from trees of zelkova, mizumezakura, tochi, cherry tree, chestnut, hoo having high solidity, and makes bare wood in each form in total. At this stage, it may be said that the skill of craftsman finishing to appropriate drying state of raw wood to get bare wood without distortion and correct dimensions is point.
    Bare wood made by woodworker is passed to furring before advancing to coating process. We cannot look at part of this groundwork work in finished Laquer Ware. However, finish condition of durability and final coating of Laquer Ware depends on the quality of this groundwork work; even if untie, is not exaggeration. Arrival at cloth setoitta work reinforcing ground-cedar or podocarp-endodermis mixed with japan (kokuso) filling hole, slits such as junction or wound of bare wood and part which is easy to be hurt is included.
    We finally begin coating when we pass through groundwork process. Lacquer repeats "grind many times when we paint", and priming, average coat, final coating and process advance. Moisture is required so that lacquer which we painted with "dries", and one to "harden" may be plain than we dry. Speed of this drying depends on daily weather and is part that technique of craftsman is called into question. Painter performs the last final coating with extreme caution not to attach a little dust and dusts either.
    Laquer Ware of errand has much finish only for final coating, but may usually give picture and design more. We call this "decoration". Line carves design in aspect that we did and does final coating of lacquer, and, "lacquer work to sow gold silver dust to decoration, and to attach," there is "mother-of-pearl" that to attach gold leaf there, and "lacquer inlaid with gold" representing pattern of gold streak cuts foil of shell in form that it is likely and decorates.
    Then let's decide to see some main processes.

    Process 1: Bare wood

    We assume zelkova and tochi raw wood and are bare wood Yamanaka Shikki's original technique using vertical timber conversion to reduce confusion of quality of wood which sawing is other production centers, and is not seen mainly. All the tools such as planes used for work are handicrafts of craftsman, and high technique is used for kakazariban kioikashita Laquer Ware products such as fine stripe or inlay (inlay). Sawing is the high technique and is appreciated potter's wheel of mountains from other production centers.

    Process 2: The groundwork

    Work to repeat "coating grind" to polish when we paint with thing which we mixed lacquer and base powder with. We keep strength and are process to smooth off the surface.

    Video is played when we click image

    Process 3: Final coating

    Process to apply lacquer such as black or cinnabar red by brush. Rich beautiful lacquered taste appears. Scrupulous attention is paid so that no atmospheric small garbage does not attach.

    Process 4: Lacquer work

    It is the etymology of lacquer work to sow powder such as money or silver to pattern which we drew with lacquer. Elegant painting is attached from flowers and birds poetic genius and traditional pattern to geometric pattern and is finished to product with unique delicacy.

    Video is played when we click image

     

  • Close-up

    Overwhelming potter's wheel ban kino technology, Yamanaka Shikki

    Yamanaka Shikki which it is said to that it began because throwers emigrated to village of Yamanaka Onsen of upper reaches in the Azuchimomoyama era. High potter's wheel technology almost art mark enabled even decoration at stage made with bare wood.

     

    Workshop where is filled with flavor of tree

    Of course, we saw the overwhelming bare wood, and technique of potter's wheel has characteristic of Yamanaka Shikki. It may be said that the wonderful skill of the Japanese highest peak that other Laquer Ware production centers accept is art in itself. Minoru Yamamoto of Master of Traditional Crafts which was successor of the splendid skill left for potter's wheel while sharpening, and making a smart sound with Shah Shah at workshop filled with flavor of tree.

    We are sharpened by sound that Shah tto is smart

    We make tools that is do by oneself from blacksmith's

    Yamamoto "whom craftsman whom anything can saw is demanded." from. It is said, "we intend to be able to saw any form." if demanded. Secret of this confidence is to plane (plane) which lined. Knife which has a long pattern to sharpen bare wood that plane was attached to potter's wheel. "Is it approximately 200 just to be right here? Because it is said, it is just one copy, I am amazed to learn.
    It "is work of craftsman that make plane itself. We do it by oneself from blacksmith's. When we saw bare wood of new form, we make new plane." As we make from tool by oneself, we can saw any form. In addition, as for the plane, it is said that forms are different every craftsman. When "people are different (they sawed), even the same plane changes form, too. Because boss told basic way and how to make tools, and "made by oneself, and devised" afterward in old days; ...
    Cannot put back when you reduce difficulty made with bare wood too much. Carefulness is demanded severe work with the speed, too.

    Craftsman oneself makes plane

    kakazariban kino gi which does not permit following of other production centers

    Potter's wheel ban kino point "letting the pivot work. For example, we flatten the center well when it is bowl." Because bare wood turns around, it is difficult to saw center part neatly.
    Traditional technique to perform decoration of the surface of turnery bare wood using knife as for sawing decoration. The number, shimokuban kiga celebrity that all 50 kinds of them are said to be 40 kinds, but engraves groove said to be sinew in parallel at above all a few intervals. It is said that we can let source of several between 1 millimeter. We serve as slipper when we held in hand with beauty. It is right high technique that pride of woodworker produced. In addition, tree dori vertical as for the bare wood of mountains. It is said that it is condition of grain of wood by bar collecting, and decoration has difficult sawing.

    Special potter's wheel which controls number of revolutions

    kakazariban kio possibility and secret to do are to mechanism of potter's wheel only in mountains. Potter's wheel using two flat belts is available for control of number of revolutions that we included backlashing in. It is said, "sawing cannot do decoration with potter's wheel of constant turn". We turn potter's wheel by operating pedal of step, and hanging flat belt conveying power on axis. It is the one which picks up, and regulates rotatory power with condition. Because we are twisted once, one is device that potter's wheel turns around to the opposite direction when we throw on this belt among two belts. It is easy to turn out that we remember function of car such as clutch to convey rotatory power, and to finish being enough.

    Work that is called off while we always think about point

    We regulate number of revolutions of potter's wheel with foot at the same time while taking in vibration to come by hand and arm from plane and knife, and delicately controlling power. "We cannot but learn with body. We cannot do it because we learned."
    More "tree is different from center part in hardness in the outer periphery. Therefore there are soft place and firm place in one bare wood." Therefore it is told to be difficult that we saw tree than we sharpen metal.
    Plane, knife which were set tight around in range that arrived of the hand of Yamamoto. And many whetstones to polish them. We polish plane in whetstone at the lightning speed and sharpen bare wood while regulating number of revolutions of potter's wheel and exchange plane and polish and sharpen. Patch totally loves a series of work. "We always consider what part next saws with which plane while sawing." Thing which was just log is finished to beautiful container in a moment. We do not get tired even if we see the work called off till when. The skill of craftsman is such a thing.

    Yamamoto called thing learning work with body

    Craftsman profile

    Makoto Yamamoto

    Master of Traditional Crafts Sawing is carrier of 49 years potter's wheel. It is said, "we intend to be able to saw any form" if demanded.

    Gleanings

    Close relation of hot spring and Laquer Ware of mountains

    Speaking of mountains, it is hot spring to be famous with Laquer Ware. Excellent hot water which stayed for nine days, and "mountains and chrysanthemum left phrase of smell hi (gets longevity needless to drink the dew of chrysanthemum of perpetual youth and longevity if we soak in hot water of mountains) of hand fold raji hot water" for Basho Matsuo in the middle of trip of "Oku no Hosomichi" in Yamanaka Onsen, and has been loved for a long time by writer and others. With development of hot spring, tableware as life article which woodworkers of upper reaches made came to be used for souvenir of bather.
    Woodworkers who went down river polished the skill more and established turnery bare wood which was foundation of current Yamanaka Shikki afterwards. Yamanaka Shikki is Laquer Ware which has been brought up in close relation with hot spring.

    • shimokuban kiga only by Yamanaka Shikki is beautiful

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Yamanaka Shikki
Phonetic symbol yamanakashikki
Classification of industrial art object Laquer Ware
Main product Tray, saucer for a teacup (saucer for a teacup), nest of boxes, tea service set
Main production area Ishikawa / Kaga-shi
The designation date May 10, 1975

Contact information

■local production associations

Association of Yamanaka Shikki cooperative association
〒922-0111
Yamanakaonsentsukatanimachi, Kaga-shi, Ishikawa i 268-2
Yamanaka Shikki Kyoto Museum of Traditional Industry
TEL: 0761-78-0305
FAX: 0761-78-5205

http://www.kaga-tv.com/yamanaka/

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

Such as "fine stripe" or "inlay" (inlay) to create very small striped patterns "saw decoration", and work using no skills and techniques is appreciated. Takamakie that part of lacquer work to be seen in bowls swells is characteristic of Yamanaka Shikki. It is got close to classic taste as life article which new sense harmonized with.

Pieces made employing “kashoku-biki techniques“ (traditional carving techniques for making decorative patterns) to produce exceptionally fine grooves (sensuji) or inlays (zogan) are very highly valued. Another feature of Yamanaka Shikki is the embossed gilt lacquerwork (Taka-maki-e) where the lacquer portion (Maki-e) is raised and which can be observed on bowls and other pieces. They are very popular as household wares, fusing classic taste with modern sensibility.

How to make

After taking tree which becomes materials to reduce skewness in lengthwise direction, and sawing potter's wheel, and having done, we finish the groundwork that we fixed using base powder with a coat with cinnabar red lacquer or black lacquer. We decorate in takamakie there. Each process is carried out by separate craftsmen who acquired technique. Other than the thing giving takamakie, there is thing "to saw decoration", and to finish using o life or suriurushi (and we can lose) which we did.

In order to minimize distortions, the wood to be used as rough material is cut longitudinally and, after a rough wooden base has been made on a potter's wheel, it is treated with zinoko powder and top coats of vermilion and black lacquer are applied. Finally, embossed gilt lacquer decorations are added on top. Each stage is performed by different craftsmen who are experts in their respective techniques. Besides the embossed gilt lacquer decorations, some pieces are also given a thin, color lacquer finish (suriurushi) to highlight the "Kashoku-biki” work.

Voice from production center

We wipe Laquer Ware with soft cloth well without modelling with ranking hot water and water after the use for a long time. As you change color and may be out of order, please avoid direct rays of the sun.