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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Kyo ShikkiKyoto Lacquer Ware

We were affected by Tang in the Nara era, and a certain technique was brought about under the lacquer work. This technique was inherited with peaceful capital relocation in Kyoto and developed.
Kyo Shikki spread out with culture of tea ceremony that prospered around Kyoto, and it prospered as the center of national Laquer Ware industry after the Muromachi era. It is work and skills and techniques which many master craftsmen left to have become the driving force and is hand and quality by the skill and excellence of design.

The maki-e technique of laying down gold and silver powders was preceded by techniques which first came into being during the Nara period (710-794), when Japan was under the influence of Tang dynasty China. The same techniques continued to be used and were developed during the Heian period (794-1185), when the capital was moved to Heian-kyo, now Kyoto.
Kyo Shikki prospered at the center of the country's lacquer ware industry from the Muromachi period (1333-1568), when it expanded along with the tea ceremony, which was flourishing in Kyoto at the time. The many fine pieces of work and technical know-how that was handed down by the famous lacquerers became the driving force of this craft, coupled with a superiority of craftsmanship both in terms of quality and design.

With such a long developmental history, Kyo Shikki is invested with a deep inner sense of wabi and sabi, or the essentially Japanese quality of peaceful simplicity that cannot be matched by other production centers. The work is completed with great care and attention, even for the smallest detail. It also has a formal beauty and, besides being of a fine superior design and excellent quality, it is also robust. The main items in production now are a staggering variety of tableware, fine pieces for use in association with the tea ceremony as well as pieces of furniture.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    Groundwork structure and tourushi are things by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    When is in roiro coat, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    The groundwork applies thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or unrefined varnish directly to bare wood, and you repeat thing which "helps put on cloth" or "helps put on paper", and mixed dust with unrefined varnish after oshita, and apply.

     
     
    ro
    After we polish and tourushi performing average coat, average coat of "pickpocket lacquer", and having applied purified roiro lacquer, repeat that you do polish when "pickpocket lacquer" does refinement unrefined varnish.

     
    (2)
    When is in ryuto, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    The groundwork applies thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or unrefined varnish directly to bare wood, and you repeat thing which "helps put on cloth" or "helps put on paper", and mixed dust with unrefined varnish after oshita, and apply.

     
     
    ro
    After tourushi doing average coat using purified Aya lacquer, and we polish average coat and having done "pickpocket lacquer", apply seisei* roiro lacquer.

     
    (3)
    When is in tree ground lacquering coat, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    After having applied thing which mixed dust with persimmon juice and thing which mixed red ocher with persimmon juice, base do whole astringent juice coat and whole astringent juice coat grind.

     
     
    ro
    After tourushi doing average coat and average coat grind repeatedly, and having done "pickpocket lacquer", apply seisei* roiro lacquer.

     
    (4)
    When encounter lacquering in black, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    The groundwork applies thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or unrefined varnish directly to bare wood, and you repeat thing which "helps put on cloth" or "helps put on paper", and mixed dust with unrefined varnish after oshita, and apply.

     
     
    ro
    You polish and tourushi performs average coat, average coat of "pickpocket lacquer", and apply "lacquering in black lacquer" or purified black roiro lacquer.

     
    (5)
    When is in kakigoto, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    After having applied thing which mixed dust with persimmon juice and thing which mixed red ocher with persimmon juice, base do whole astringent juice coat and whole astringent juice coat grind.

     
     
    ro
    tourushi apply purified lacquer.

     
    (6)
    When is in cloth-patterned lacquer ware, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    The groundwork applies thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or unrefined varnish directly to bare wood and "you help put on cloth" using Azabu and do "rust modest closing words of a letter" and "be accompanied in rust" after oshita, and you leave the texture, and do rust grind.

     
     
    ro
    After we polish and having performed average coat, average coat of "pickpocket lacquer", tourushi apply purified lacquer.

     
    (7)
    When is in fusurito, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    The groundwork applies thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or unrefined varnish directly to bare wood, and "you help put on cloth" using Azabu, and "you cut, and, after oshita, be rusted" and do "rust texture grind".

     
     
    ro
    After "printing cloth" repeatedly, and having done purified lacquer, tourushi apply refinement lacquer.

     
    (8)
    When is in ichikanto, thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    After having done "paper tension" using thing which mixed the U.S. seaweed with unrefined varnish or the U.S. seaweed, the groundwork repeat that we do grind when we do "lacquer pull" or "seaweed pull".

     
     
    ro
    After having performed "pickpocket coat" of purified unrefined varnish, lacquering apply purified lacquer.

    2
    Bare wood structure is thing by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    When it is in turnery, you use potter's wheel stand and birokurogannao, and mold.

     
    (2)
    When it is in Chinese brocade, or "stop and make" by "you cut and bend, and sawtooth can enter and waits, and be accompanied" and "lack in kiwa", and mold niyori.

     
    (3)
    When you encounter bending, mold thing which you boiled by "we wait, and there be".

     
    (4)
    When it is in dry lacquer, you apply thing which mixed dust with unrefined varnish to model or core, and mold. In this case, "help put on cloth" or "help put on paper"; osurukoto.

    3
    When do decoration, thing with lacquer work, mother-of-pearl, Schrenck's limpet or foil picture. In this case, thing by mother-of-pearl or inlaid mother-of-pearl work do "roiro finish".

    Raw materials

    1
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

    2
    Assume bare wood (you remove dry lacquer.) material having materials which are equal to hinoki, wig, zelkova or cedar or common Japanese bamboo or these or bamboo.

  • Work scenery

    Production of Kyo Shikki makes basis material causing instrument with wood mainly and we paint with it with lacquer and perform decoration such as stack, lacquer work (we can wind up) or mother-of-pearl (and others do not appear). There are three processes of coating, decoration (kashoku) made with bare wood (pheasant) when we greatly distribute.

    Process 1: It is made with bare wood (pheasant)

    We begin to talk from mountain and use thing which dries more than 4-5 years, and got rid of confusion for bare wood. We customize in form to match each container, preparation. Hinoki cedar zelkova tochi drills are used for materials.
    "The making of turnery (go down thing) bare wood" to make bowl, bowl. "The making of Chinese brocade (thing which there was) bare wood" to make boxes. We make bare wood using technique to "be made with hot water music (yumage) bare wood" to make round music.

    Process 2: The groundwork of lacquering

    We strengthen basis material, and yaseo prevents, and ground-cedar or podocarp-endodermis mixed with japan (kokuso), bare wood hardening (pheasant hardening), cloth arrive to be finished beautifully (we help put on cloth) and they bind ground charge account (jitsuke), and rust (they bind and are rusted) be rusted and performs process such as (be rusted).
    At first we carve groove to the joint of bare wood and we bury ground-cedar or podocarp-endodermis mixed with japan lacquer there and reinforce (ground-cedar or podocarp-endodermis mixed with japan). We grind direct unrefined varnish (and we can come) on the bare wood surface and are crowded and do the groundwork soundly afterwards. (bare wood hardening)
    "We help put on cloth" and, with deha, paste lacquer, put hemp cloth. We touch thing which kneaded a mixture of coarse base powder of some particles with dust (saw) with lacquer and water with spatula and dry. (ground charge account)
    We touch rust (thing which was able to mix dust, lacquer, water) which was able to enter a little too much and dry lacquer afterwards "to bind, and to reinforce corner and mask in technique called rust", and to express beauty. We turn on several times of rust with spatula and dry. (be rusted)

    Process 3: We polish during groundwork grind (shitajitogi) of lacquering (nakatogi)

    We repeat work (we polish water) to sharpen instrument which it be rusted and did using whetstone to be flat, and to get smooth. Work to fix corner, corner decides the quality of instrument. Furthermore, to instrument which grinds unrefined varnish, and finished (finish rust hardening) including, we perform process of "undercoating" "coating" using lacquer of the same color. And we begin "middle grind". After having dried by "middle grind" enough, we do water grind so that we are smoothed using Suruga charcoal.

    Process 4: Final coating (uwanuri)

    We do "final coating" to paint with lacquer which we stack several pieces of Yoshino paper next and spent using brush when the groundwork is over.
    For final coating, as for the main lacquering technique (urushinurigiho) that "roiro lacquer" (roironuri) puts for "ichikanto ri" (we paint with part) in Kyo Shikki, there is "color lacquering" (be and sell and paint) to paint with color lacquer which you may put color and kneaded eight kinds "lacquering in black" (shinnuri) to apply black lacquer.

    Process 5: We put up gnarl

    When final coating is over, and fine striped pattern was settled down a little, we let you pick up "dust" attaching to lacquer side one by one in point of shaft of a quill (hanejiku) of chicken and strain.

    Process 6: Roiro lacquer finish (roiroshiage)

    We perform "roiro lacquer finish" to finish the lacquered surface like mirror depending on instrument beautifully. After finishing with a coat here, and having dried enough, we polish the surface in charcoal and improve in oil dust (oil and saw). We do suriurushi (and we can lose) with cotton and perform this repeatedly and we polish using natane oil and powdered antler (horn comes) by hand and finish good-quality lacquer.

    Process 7: Decoration (kashoku)

    Lacquer work
    Technique of lacquer work was finished in Kyoto in the Heian era. We draw sentence state with lacquer and sow gold, silver dust and we change roughness and give highly and we shade off and change color and express three-dimensional impression.

    Flat lacquering
    (hiramakie)
    We draw Fumi with lacquer and we do lacquer hardening and finish.
    Takamakie
    (takamakie)
    We heap up highly beforehand and finish in technique of flat lacquering on the top.
    Clouded gold lacquer
    (we begin to polish and can wind up)
    We draw Fumi with lacquer and we sow gold dust and dry. We paint with lacquer on the lacquer work that sowed gold dust and we begin to polish and polish and finish.

    Mother-of-pearl, Schrenck's limpet (and others do not appear aogai)
    It is technique to be studded with shellfish pieces such as abalone or turbo, and to express design. Mysterious brightness that the shellfish has is the charm.
    In mother-of-pearl, we keep watch on Akkai in aspect that applied lacquer and express design. (Akkai: 1.5-3mm thickness)
    Schrenck's limpet watches thin shellfish and expresses design. (thin shellfish: approximately 0.3mm thickness)

     

  • Close-up

    Kyo Shikki, Kyoto lacquer work to found flower at the capital of 1,000 years

    Kyo Shikki has both dignity and elegance with internal deep taste such as "Wabi" "rust". By refined superior design and skills and techniques, we continue up to the present day as second to none thing in high-quality article.

     

    Was brought up in the world of tea ceremony; the beauty of "Wabi" "rust"

    Birth of Laquer Ware was old, and lacquer has been already used in Jomon period. The origin of "lacquer work" to be seen in Kyo Shikki is the Nara era. The technique called lacquering mixed with gold dust (makkinru) was inherited in the Heian era and developed, and clouded gold lacquer and flat lacquering were finished. In Kyoto that prospered for a long time as the center of politics and culture, Laquer Ware has been also brought up by the history of 1,000 years. Tea ceremony culture that prospered around Kyoto after the Muromachi era in particular influenced Kyo Shikki deeply and comprised internal taste such as "Wabi" "rust" in keen sense of beauty. We spotlighted coating and lacquer work of lacquer art this time and heard charm of Kyo Shikki.

    Be attracted by brightness, lacquer of jet black

    The world of Kyo Shikki said to be "painter shop seven job" (nushiyananashoku). Because we had Laquer Ware craftsman engaged in all processes, and painter person handled order from wholesale dealer (Laquer Ware shop), it would come to be called so. From instrument to fitting, we manage progress of process about a piece of a piece of ordered items. In consideration of field that each craftsman is good at, we perform distribution of distribution and work of person.
    Owner is the second generation of such painter shop. In studio which we set up in Yamashina, we grasp spatula as painter by oneself. We paint in coating and, other than the last process "final coating," turn all on rust with spatula of hinoki (dust + water + groundwork lacquer). We add all spatula trace to uniform thickness. Process to be nervous about continues. Above all it "is process of "final coating" to mind most. Fresh start does not hear that "dust" enters here. We use lacquer to use for final coating after even stack, a minimum filtered several pieces of Yoshino paper three times. This is because it removes "dust" which it got into in lacquer. We tell to wipe room average with a damp cloth by all means from morning on day to do final coating. This is because it does not put up "dust" even a little. We say, "I may not see even if we come, and visitor crawls when we begin to paint in the case of final coating". Thing which floated till then because air moves falls into very small "Chile" which body and head of person have and "we boast" at random. Therefore room keeps on sitting down, and, only on day of "final coating", "it cannot move until we finish all painting if we begin to paint with staying".
    Temperature 26 degrees. June when humidity is in 80-90% is suffering month for painter. to ttasakikara lacquer begins to dry. Roasted lacquer tree; "use "fried lacquer", and regulate the speed of dehydration. Lacquer is tense immediately, and sign of brush remains when we do not do so. We may get a rash with lacquer in the summertime even if we can immunise. As for the arm, it is said that it becomes bright red like burn. "Luster of jet black rich for owner to product finished for standing perpendicular tetayona (binds rust) form and slight wound at corner. Coating skin which warm. It was done lacquer work in jet black in a good balance by it. ryuto which was transparent, and applied lacquer (shugourushi). They as for the best charm of Kyo Shikki that is; it is said.

    Feel dignity in refined elegance of Kyo Shikki

    Master of lacquer work Yoshio Yamashita. We were born to parents who ran "painter" in Wajima. We learn return, lacquer work from home town from student mobilization by the end of the war. Third son Bo of nine brothers. We were the best at painting in brothers since it was small. After having drawn lacquer work of Wajima Nuri for five years, we went to Kanazawa and continued drawing Kaga lacquer work for ten years. We are engaged in lacquer art afterwards in Kyoto for 40 years. Taste of Laquer Ware is totally different in Wajima and Kaga, Kyoto even if we say the same "lacquer work". Culture to become background is because sense of beauty demanded from lacquer work is different at all.
    Whenever land representing lacquer work changed, we studied picture. "We went to department store and looked around designs liked in pattern of kimono or the land". Design to think to be, "it is good" bought accessory of range to be able to buy by oneself including small jujube (jujube) and small tray and we described over and over again and learned.
    Because "we left school and did not study properly." The thought made Yamashita greed adversely. From one heart "that thing to look at, sense of all the things which heard wanted to study", we were tied to idea of lacquer work. We thought that it was, "it is in design that described mountain, and should be able to enter this background" on seeing photograph of calendar which we got in neighboring liquor shop. Backed by the climax of background, we describe thick Kitayama cedar in furnace salary (robuchi). We were shaken off in everyday work when we wanted to give cedar leaf thickness and sowed gold dust which collected little by little on the lacquer over and over again. It was told that design was too special and was, "we are not popular" with "Kitayama cedar". But the furnace salary wins governor Prize. We were liked by master of tea ceremony, and sales contract entered during exhibition exhibition period. What is liked by what kind of person? It is episode to show accuracy of "eyes" of Yamashita. Having displayed husks while eating Sazae at dinner. We put chopsticks "is this unstable?". One stood among Sazae which there were approximately ten erectly. Sazae is Laquer Ware exhibition; in "director Prize." Idea does not run out.
    For Yamashita, charm of Kyo Shikki will be what. "Charm that and we are sophisticated and kinkira and flamboyance do not have. It is simply refined haiku. Master lacquer work that was brought up in Wajima in birth, Kaga, and opened flower in Kyoto. It is live half life with Laquer Ware.

    Craftsman profile

    Tadahiro Oya (oyatadahiro)

    It was born in February 15, 1937.
    Person of Kyo Shikki lacquer art.
    Master of Traditional Crafts
    Kyoto traditional industry excellence engineer
    Kyo Shikki Master of Traditional Crafts society's vice-chairperson
    Artisan society board member
    Kyoto Laquer Ware industrial arts cooperative association director
    Kyoto Traditional Craft technical school lecturer

    Yoshio Yamashita (Yamashita gives up)

    It was born in August 16, 1929.
    Master of Kyo Shikki lacquer work.
    Master of Traditional Crafts
    Kyoto traditional industry excellence engineer
    kunshichitoaoshokukiriyoshojusho (the autumn of 1999)
    Kyoto Laquer Ware industrial arts cooperative association director
    Kyoto Traditional Craft technical school lecturer

    Gleanings

    It is petty person of Japanese-style in home party of the weekend

    Spherical beautiful wine cooler is made of Laquer Ware. Atmosphere that sake bottle which gave mother-of-pearl is individual, and Japanese-style is modern. Laquer Ware is known all over the world so as to be called "Japan". If item which is indispensable in party aligns in "Kyo Shikki", it becomes refined atmosphere. Hand drum-shaped bottle and cup which is usable with both jujube-style small sake cup and top and bottom is popular recently.

    • Wine cooler of Laquer Ware that spherical design is stylish. When small sake cup and sake bottle align, what I did?

     

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Kyo Shikki
Phonetic symbol kyoshikki
Classification of industrial art object Laquer Ware
Main product Tea service set, tableware, furniture
Main production area Kyoto / Kyoto-shi
The designation date February 26, 1976

Contact information

■local production associations

Kyoto Laquer Ware industrial arts cooperative association
〒606-8343
9-1, Okazakiseishojicho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto
KYO office
TEL: 075-761-3460
FAX: 075-761-3466

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

Kyo Shikki is brought up for long history and we are not seen in other production centers and comprise internal deep taste such as "Wabi" "rust". We are elegant and, in addition to refined design and durability, feature plane and beauty that is three-dimensional made and the delicate finish.

Kyo shikki, steeped in a long history, is characterized by a profound “wabi-sabi” (aesthetic view centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection) flavor not seen in wares from other production areas. Its main features are its elegant and sophisticated design, its robustness, as well as the beauty of its two-dimensional and three- dimensional elements and its delicate finish.

How to make

We make bare wood using technique such as Chinese brocade, hot water music, turnery and plate basis material with cloth the ground leveling and we give lacquering and finish with a coat after coating during grind. Decoration draws design with lacquer and sows money, silver dust and heaps up and shades off and we change color and express three-dimensional impression. In addition, there is technique such as Schrenck's limpets which are studded with fragments of shell, and express Fumi.

Wooden bases are created employing various tools and techniques like sculpting wooden boards, lathing or bending by steam and then, after the rough body has been subjected to consolidation, fabric application, sabitsuke treatment (application raw lacquer mixed with polishing powder) and has been thoroughly sanded, intermediate and top coats are applied. In the decorating stage, patterns are drawn in lacquer, gold and silver powder is applied and raising, blurring and color alterations are performed to enhance the three-dimensional effect. The technique of embedding fragments of limpet shells to create patterns is also used.

Voice from production center

If it is the New Year, meeting of the first tea ceremony is held in house in the town in the New Year. Kyo Shikki which gets a lot of looks conspicuously in neat and clean tea-ceremony room where we made decoration of the New Year on. It is modest, but has dignified personality somewhere. Please enjoy culture of tea ceremony in Kyo Shikki by all means.