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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Osaka RanmaOsaka Transoms

As for the beginning of Osaka Ranma, technique to become the cause of the tradition technique is seen in Saint Shinto shrine or Shitenno-ji Temple in Osaka in the early 17th century.
It was in the middle of the Edo era and was attached as interior decoration to express utility and dignity to take in light, and to make ventilation better between tea of general house led by merchant's family afterwards on the lintels () such as parlors.

The origins of this craft date back to the beginning of the 17th century and the traditional woodworking skills that can be seen at Osaka's Hijiri Shrine and Shiteno-ji temple. Gradually during the 18th century, transoms were mainly introduced into merchant's houses not only for practical reasons of ventilation and lighting but also as a decorative element capable of raising the quality of interior space, especially in rooms where guest would be received.

There are many types of transom. The bold carving of one type helps to bring out the best qualities of the grain of the special Yaku cedar from which it is made. A wonderful balance between the grain of paulownia and open-work in the design is achieved in another. Some are strict bars or a repeat of one element, others are grills. Still others are not much more than a frame but all are pieces of decoration with a function. Despite the fall in the number of traditional houses being built, they make screens, picture frames that is so special to the Japanese house interior.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    When is in sculpture ranma; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Draw sketch on board using fudes and sumi directly.

     
    (2)
    Carving is thing by "three-dimensional carving" together front and back both sides.

     
    (3)
    Polish finish using "ibotarou" or thing having property that is equal to this and "uzukuri".

    2
    When is in openwork ranma; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Carve so that Kiguchi part of watermark becomes right angle for board.

     
    (2)
    When you carve "flowers and birds hills and rivers design", you draw sketch on board using fudes and sumi directly, and "you turn you hit and handle, and and knife" "saws corner", and carving uses o, and "you pull, and do higher-tone noh song" to the sketch tip details.

    3
    When is in reed ranma; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    "Return compute of child of reed Thursday"; niyorukoto.

     
    (2)
    Fit reed in "bead". In this case, "do it, and fitting goes"; niyorukoto.

     
    (3)
    "Bead" grinds tourushi.

    4
    When is in member of a group ranma; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Calculation of member of a group is thing by "interrupt".

     
    (2)
    Use "pattern practice with a partner limit stand" and "template" for pattern practice with a partner limit.

     
    (3)
    Assume pattern practice with a partner three pattern practice with a partner.

    5
    When is in setsubatsurankan; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    We grind "it goes without gnarl". In this case, assume bamboo smoke-stained bamboo.

     
    (2)
    "Single, part close against gnarl lacks"; osurukoto.

     
    (3)
    Scrape fleshy substance part of bamboo.

     
    (4)
    Fit setsubatsusaiko in "bead" or "giving up border". In this case, "do it, and fitting to "bead" goes"; niyorukoto.

     
    (5)
    "Bead" and "giving up border" grind tourushi.

    6
    When is in study ranma; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Draw sketch on board using fudes and sumi directly.

     
    (2)
    Carving is thing by "three-dimensional carving" of one side.

     
    (3)
    Polish finish using "ibotarou" or thing having property that is equal to this and "uzukuri".

    7
    When is on screen; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Draw sketch on board using fudes and sumi directly.

     
    (2)
    Carving is thing by "three-dimensional carving" together front and back both sides.

     
    (3)
    Polish finish using "ibotarou" or thing having materials which are equal to this and "uzukuri".

    8
    When is in framed picture; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Draw sketch on board using fudes and sumi directly.

     
    (2)
    Carving is thing by "three-dimensional carving".

     
    (3)
    Polish finish using "ibotarou" or thing having materials which are equal to this and "uzukuri".

    Raw materials

    1
    Assume raw wood cedar, hinoki, drill or hoe or material having materials which are equal to these.

    2
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

  • Work scenery

    Process of manufacture of Osaka Ranma is complicated, and it takes trouble and time very much before it is completed.
    As characteristic of Osaka Ranma, we may change the back and pattern of table and need high technique. To that end, you acquire ascetic practices of long time and must acquire various techniques.
    Then let's introduce production process of representative sculpture ranma where we made use of grain of wood in.

    Process 1: Choice tree

    Cedar is Yaku cedar, and it uses Furuki more than 1,000 years years old in in choice woods such as cedar, hinoki, drill to become materials of ranma. We choose color, quality of wood, good thing of luster.

    Process 2: Sawing

    We saw up in lower than 45 millimeters of thickness, and length is to around .4 meters of approximately 2 meters.

    Process 3: Drying

    At place where does not get wind without moisture, we put up board and dry in the shade and dry. We drink up board and room with a wooden floor 3-6 centimeters on this occasion to prevent feeling blue from part piled up. Moisture falls down naturally by putting up board lengthwise and dries. However, cortex is stormy when we expose to Nikko and wind and wakes up tree breaking. In addition, we may be broken in the middle of sculptures when we do not use well dry thing. For three months or more, we let you naturally dry, but there is thing suffering from drying depending on kind of tree for 2-3 years.

    Process 4: Timber conversion

    We do sumi charge account, dimensions limit by one set and sharpen in thickness more than 11 millimeters.

    Process 5: 'toonist

    We draw sketch on master with writing brush by sumi directly. There are not paper patterns and thinks about picture of the front and back to see grain of wood and decides design. As sketch becomes the basics, we mind enough and describe realistically.

    Process 6: We saw and work

    We dig out by saw with notched thin blade such as drill through the front and back and make making an open space.

    Process 7: We reel and work

    We clip out unnecessary part of sketch and make modifications while sawing, and sharpening rough weather of mouth. We are nervous very much by machine as there is much complicated work not to be possible.

    Process 8: Rough carving

    We begin to carve along design roughly.

    Process 9: Carving

    We do finish that we made use of grain of wood in by plane carving. And we show perspective, three-dimensional impression by three-dimensional carving.
    Kind of carving includes three of the following.
    ・Ordinary carving…We attach distinction of heap and carve.
    ・Upper carving…We work as Fukahori to take out three-dimensional impression and perspective.
    ・Basket carving…We carve three-dimensionally so that it seems that we overlap with three folds of four folds.

    Process 10: Chamfering

    We classify end into sculpture side and border with outer periphery.
    We polish carefully finely to show beauty of grain of wood.

    Process 11: Polishing processing

    We polish uzukuri, ibotaroude carefully.

    Process 12: Class frame

    We make frame and we fit ranma which we carved and are completion.

     

  • Close-up

    High architectural engineering and the Japanese style beauty that we served as decorativeness and prepared

    "Osaka Ranma" which had the origin in the 17th century conveyed grain of wood of natural choice woods such as Yaku cedar or paulownia and beauty of hue, and time of 300 years drifted. On the lintel of wooden building house, we are attached as interior decoration to keep utility and dignity to make lighting, the ventilation better.

     

    Studio is signboard having high attention degree

    There is studio in 22 places of Osaka bottoms and we produce and succeed to Osaka Ranma in each. We called at ranma shop run for a long time in Osaka-shi and asked Master of Traditional Crafts, Yoshikawa about story. "My studio is this storefront facing the road. We do ranma production while feeling seasonal change here." It was unexpected that we only entered at business district a little, and there was such traditional ranma shop. As it is fitted with glass, I see state of work very well from the outside. We stop when passing, and there are a lot of people looking at the state. It was old and let you get rid of image such as high-quality article which did not arrive of the hand" in thing called ranma, and "it was opener, and "it located workshop in this place from thought of Yoshikawa to want to do in the world where young people were easy to enter". He postpones antenna every day here to catch needs of visitor.

    We carve with cutting down with one stroke of the sword cutting down with one stroke of the sword feeling

    Eyes of industrial arts person staring at material

    Because article called ranma is article to make on two-room suite Japanese-style room, it must be "table" with both sides. It is said that it takes approximately 1 year from half a year to build up one ranma when it is thing which we devoted ourselves to again for around three days as for the simple thing. You must finish sculpture ranma for labor and time, but you do splendidly by just that much and have in particular solid flavor. We draw sketch on one piece of open board with sumi directly, and technique of Osaka Ranma is crowded and finishes. There is not thing called lower paper with colored figures and is what change design by grain of wood to see tree each time. There is thing with cavity depending on wood inside, too, but they let you do, but eyes of industrial arts person are sharp because they say that they have an idea when they see appearance. As for the kind of ranma, there is ranma without sculpture, openwork, osa, member of a group, gnarl, and design of sculpture ranma greatly divides, and "there is thing to be good at by industrial arts person with plants such as animal, pine, bamboo, and plum such as scenery or matching pairs of the eight best scenic places of Omi, and it is different in all the designs, and each individuality lives."

    We manage various types of chisels

    Natural enemy of Officially designated Traditional craft products

    The person in charge and design architect of engineering firm visited order for ranma once. However, it is said that in late years orders from interior coordinator from woman increase. Not only "we catch ranma as historical thing, but also make much of functions such as dormer-window or breathability, and design suggests new stylish thing, too." Nostalgic design is popular, and increase of order was expected, but the Fire Services Act of airtight serious consideration is the present conditions frustrating the spread of ranma. Besides, "design is stolen in next week when we announce new design on the Internet, and the just same articles have been imported from foreign countries." Import from foreign countries is big problem for the world of Traditional Craft.

    To future ranma craftsman

    "Thank you, reliable words were told by Yoshikawa saying we can do anything about carving because we were skillful.". As well as big ranma, we make the amount of sculpture and make sculpture on jewel box. However, in the same way as the world of other Traditional Craft, Osaka Ranma is worried about lack of successor, too. The average age of industrial arts people is 60 years old now. "Father had been ranma craftsman, but entered this world as we liked making myself thing. It takes 10 years from five years to become full-fledged, but study effort is always the necessary world even if we do it for dozens of years. He/she talked about dream to born Osaka Ranma craftsman from now on saying we think that ranma craftsman in the future wanted you to become "writer".

    • Small place performs addition and subtraction of power enough.

    Bearing surface is easy to sit down in expression including moat, and it is devised

    Gleanings

    Difference of Osaka Ranma and Inami ranma

    It is Osaka and Inamimachi, Toyama to form production center of ranma in the whole country. Sculpture ranma is the main constituent, but, in the case of Inami, in the ranma, Osaka Ranma includes sculpture ranma, openwork (we thin and overcharge) ranma, osa ranma, member of a group (Kumiko) ranma, setsubatsu (pull) ranma, implantation (implantation) ranma, study (shoin) ranma. There are the front and back to sculpture by the master sitting down at the head of the table because originally castle, shrines and temples, Buddhist temple became use place in Inami ranma, and form that visitor looks up at from farther seat having had stolen. However, because Osaka Ranma spread among the people at large, there is many simple ranma, and, also, the front and back are given object, too.
    Ranma which enters part on shoji of top and bottom to be adjacent to tokonoma. There are flavor ball type, sculpture, various models including openwork that finished bead by lacquering. Shoji and glass enter corridor side.

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Osaka Ranma
Phonetic symbol osakaramma
Classification of industrial art object Woodcraft, Bamboo Craftwork
Main product Ranma, screen (screen), the amount of sculpture
Main production area Osaka / Osaka-shi, Kishiwada-shi, Suita-shi, Kaizuka-shi, Hirakata-shi, Ibaraki-shi, Matsubara-shi, Settsu-shi, Higashiosaka-shi, Nose-cho, Toyono-gun
The designation date September 4, 1975

Contact information

■local production associations

Osaka Ranma industrial arts cooperative association
〒566-0052
1-4-26, Torikaihonmachi, Settsu-shi, Osaka
Sun apartment house Nishimoto 101
TEL: 072-646-8470
FAX: 072-646-8471

http://osakaranma.com/

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

There is specific "batsu (pull) ranma", and, "reed (suppose) which expressed design "openwork (thins, and overcharges) ranma" where skin and watermark of drill harmonized with picture-like "sculpture ranma" where we made use of grain of wood of Yaku cedar in Osaka Ranma," "member of a group (Kumiko) ranma" comprises functionality of decoration and air exchange appropriate for Japan house.

Osaka ranma include "chokoku-ranma" carved transoms which perfectly highlight the Yakusugi wood’s grain, “sukashibori-ranma” open work transoms where the bark of the pawlonia is blended into the work, "osa" transoms adorned with patterns, "kumiko-ranma” transoms and the unique "nuki-ranma” transoms, all combining decorative functions with air- exchange functionality, which makes them very suitable for Japanese houses.

How to make

When we assume cedar, drill, tree of hinoki raw materials and cut and bring down necessary size after nature dried and describe sketch, we describe using writing brush directly and ban (hi) comes according to the design and does chestnut. Carving polishes finish with wax (rou) called "ibotarou" by three-dimensional carving and finishes.

The cedar, pawlonia and cypress woods used as raw materials are cut to the required size after having been naturally dried and, if sketches are drawn, they are drawn directly with a brush and then the surface is carved following the sketch. Carving is done three-dimensionally and the finishing consists in polishing using a type of wax called "insect wax."

Voice from production center

With wooden building which there is in Japan for a long time, we think about ranma as being able to ventilate nature and, like study ranma, are used.

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