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TRADITIONAL CRAFTS

Kyo ButsuguKyoto Buddhist Paraphernalia

It is thought that the production was begun as for the Household Buddhist Fittings in Kyoto in figure Saicho in peaceful Buddhism belonging to characteristic, the about eighth century in the times of the empty sea.
Master craftsman of Buddhist image arranges "the residence of a Buddhist image sculptor" in Article 7 in the early eleventh century, and we gathered craftsmen made with Household Buddhist Fittings, but it may be said that this is opening of the history of full-scale Household Buddhist Fittings.

It is conceivable that the various pieces of paraphernalia associated with Buddhism were first produced in Kyoto around the 8th century, when the monks Saichou and Kukai were exerting their influence on Heian Buddhism.
Nevertheless, it was not until the beginning of the 11th century that work on this assortment of items began in earnest. This was when, Sadatomo, a sculptor of Buddhist images set up the Bussho workshop close to Hichijo in Kyoto and gathered around him specialists to make the various items required.

It is little wonder that this craft developed in such an environment as Kyoto, which is home to the headquarters of some one hundred or so different sects and nearly 3,000 temples as well as countless national treasures and cultural assets. This work is nothing less than a crystallization of the skill and spirit bringing together under one banner a wide variety of different skills and techniques wielded by masters in each field. The design of the many items made differs for each sect, as do the way in which things are used. All must be accommodated in the making of wooden and metal items, carved wooden representation of Buddha and other Buddhist images.

  • Notification

    skills and techniques

    1
    When look good with wooden Household Buddhist Fittings (remove wooden sculpture Buddha.); thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    After bare wood structure doing "stick forest" or "model structure", and having processed, do "temporary composing type" or "assembling". In this case, processing is thing by "relief" or "charge account carving" "ground carving" all or "openwork" of "corner chamfering" "finish cut that hand cancer anything depends" on and "concealment of cut end".

     
    (2)
    The painting perform hand coating of purified lacquer.

     
    (3)
    Decoration (ranma, godenshotaku and case to bloom, and to affect box are excluded.) loses gold leaf push.

     
    (4)
    When bloom, and ranma, godenshotakumata do decoration with box; thing by lacquer work, gold leaf push or coloring.

    2
    When meet wooden sculpture Buddha; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    Original drawing structure is thing by "ritual rule" and "the allotment of timber method".

     
    (2)
    Sculpture of Buddha's body is thing by any of the following.

     
     
    i
    After "rough carving" did "small structure" and "trunk guri" with thing which puts Araki collecting and tree by "mokukiho", and did when it is to thing of method of constructing a statue by assembling pieces of wood, do "finish".

     
     
    ro
    After having done "rough carving" and "small structure" with Araki collecting thing which did when it is to thing of Ichiboku-zukuri, do "finish".

     
    (3)
    Sculpture of base and nimbus is thing by "openwork" or "charge account carving" "relief" "ground carving".

     
    (4)
    The painting (case to affect thing using sandalwood, Japanese nutmeg or kusu for bare wood is excluded.) perform hand coating of purified lacquer.

    3
    When is in metal Household Buddhist Fittings; thing by any of the following.

     
    (1)
    When is to casting; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    Mold being sandbox.

     
     
    ro
    Use "mold" or "fertile land" for molding sand of part contacting with molten metal.

     
     
    ha
    Molding of mold is thing by "mold frame" or "be crowded model" (we include "rou type".).

     
     
    ni
    Thing by burning of mold or drying (we include "superficial charring".).

     
     
    ho
    The surface of casting uses "stew method" or by "fried material world" or lacquer or iron shoo and colors or does gold leaf push or finish by abrasion or plating.

     
    (2)
    When encounter metal beating; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    After molding did "shinda chi" with metal which did gold collecting by one piece collecting using shintsuchi, using first coating mallet, do "first coating".

     
     
    ro
    After sounding the surface, and hitting finish using mallet and wooden hammer, and sounding, and having taken distortion, polish using whetstone. In this case, relationship uses file and bikisageo and can be set.

     
     
    ha
    Color the surface of metal beating using lacquer.

     
    (3)
    When encounter sheet metal processing; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
     
    i
    Bend, and carve metal, and cut off molding; is thing by at least three combinations among repousse and openwork.

     
     
    ro
    The surface of sheet metal uses "stew method" or by "fried material world" or lacquer or iron shoo and colors or does gold leaf push or finish by abrasion or plating.

    4
    When is in Buddhist painting axis; thing by the next technique or technique.

     
    (1)
    After having done 'toonist using sumi, or you cut sumi, color or gold paint, and describe this newspaper structure in "silk book" using Gane.

     
    (2)
    This newspaper do "skin lining".

     
    (3)
    Line beri and hanging strip using Washi Paper using cloth of gold or damask among total beri.

     
    (4)
    After "we follow" about this newspaper which we lined, total beri and middle beriha, "combination" and having done "middle lining", do "total lining" and "sticking temporarily".

    Raw materials

    1
    When you look good with wooden Household Buddhist Fittings (you remove wooden sculpture Buddha.), use the next raw materials.

     
    (1)
    Assume bare wood material having materials which are equal to pine, hinoki, cedar or zelkova or these.

     
    (2)
    Metal fittings have materials which are equal to copper or copper compound metal or these; being made of metal.

     
    (3)
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

    2
    When you meet wooden sculpture Buddha, use the next raw materials.

     
    (1)
    Assume raw wood material having materials which are equal to pine, hinoki, Japanese nutmeg or sandalwood or these.

     
    (2)
    Assume lacquer natural lacquer.

    3
    When it is in metal Household Buddhist Fittings, use the next raw materials.

     
    (1)
    Assume material of casting copper compound metal.

     
    (2)
    Assume material of metal beating and sheet metal processing copper or copper compound metal.

     
    (3)
    Assume lacquer to use for coloring agent natural lacquer.

    4
    Buddhist painting axis

     
    (1)
    Assume dough silk fabrics.

     
    (2)
    Assume paper making paper by hand Washi Paper.

  • Work scenery

    A wide variety of division of labor systems establish production process of Kyo Butsugu, and the types of job what more than 40 exist and they total technique of craftsmen who are mainly in charge of each section and are completed. Collected studies, that of high skill due to hand of 95 (as of April 1, 2001) specialized craftsmen including Master of Traditional Crafts are Kyo Butsugu.

    Process 1: Bare wood process

    We make form with wood selected carefully. We make with form set of every each denomination using materials of hinoki cedar pine maple wig hoe by use of each Household Buddhist Fittings.

    Process 2: Tree sculpture process

    We choose design and, in wood such as hinoki, pine, make hand-carving by chisel, knife. In limited ranges such as daises for a Buddhist image (shumidan), vitality, dynamism are work that is important whether you express that there is how while following way of Motoyama. Study of technique that sculpture gives beholder peace of mind is necessary.

    Process 3: Buddha statue sculpture process

    Technique of Buddha statue sculpture has image carved out of one piece of wood and method of constructing a statue by assembling pieces of wood, and hinoki pine hippopotamus sandalwoods are used for materials. When we engrave Buddha statue of bare wood finish and figurine of sandalwood materials of scented wood in technique to express whole body of Buddha statue from one tree, image carved out of one piece of wood is suitable. When we make big Buddha statue, method of constructing a statue by assembling pieces of wood is suitable and is very rational technique finished by sculptor of great Buddhist images, Jocho of Fujiwara period. We prepare all parts of Buddha statue in the other materials and we put tree and should do this, and we can prevent crack by drying of image by putting inner scooping out for image again, and there are many advantages.

    Process 4: Lacquering process

    After having processed base on the formed bare wood, we paint with handle with natural purified lacquer and do. We begin with adjustment of bare wood and we give important part ground-cedar or podocarp-endodermis mixed with japan (kokuso) and put cloth and Washi Paper and touch groundwork rust (rust) many times and we polish in whetstone and finish the groundwork. And we filter high quality nature lacquer through filter paper and do coating in undercoating and we do sumi grind after drying and fix the surface and finish with a coat.

    Process 5: Roiro lacquer process

    We polish evenly and improve appearance of lacquering and give luster. We paint with roiro lacquers and we study hard more and bring on luster of smooth, rich jet black, and polish charcoal, and we print trunk commission, and lacquer, powdered antler (horn comes) polishing are necessary. Polishing polishes flatness using Suruga charcoal and roiro lacquer charcoal closely, and charcoal is important process to control finish. We print and, after trunk commission, repeat lacquer and polishing three times, and, as for the third woodcut print lacquer, luster deepens remarkably particularly by polishing after having dried thinly and enough.

    Process 6: Lacquer work process

    It draws pattern with lacquer, and it sows gold dust, silver dust, shellfishs in the top, and it is lacquer work more correction or that we begin to polish, and do. We polish fine powder for lacquering lacquer work, polishing fun*e, and lacquer work has technique such as fun*e. Quantity of powder to use by simple process to sow fine powder for lacquering lacquer work to use small gold dust, and to dry is relatively small quantity. We plaster with lacquer from the top where we polish and sowed in in powder lacquer work using coarse gold dust and must begin to polish with charcoal, and, as for the quantity of gold dust to use, one hundred times, process need dozens of times at time, too. Besides, various processes increase, and expression method of Kyoto lacquer work is infinite.

    Process 7: Coloring process

    Reach puberty on the making of on the gold leaf or direct groundwork with gold dust, color, paint and do. There are three kinds of full color to paint coloring in color many times, and to repeat, bare wood coloring that kept material of tree alive with light paint, foil coloring to describe in light coloration on, foil-stamping. Mineral colors, silk without starching paint fixes to sculptures by glia (glue). In addition, we understand that compounding of paint was thereby made with important element in Kyoto.

    Process 8: Net money process to foil-stamp

    We put pure gold leaf on article which lacquer has been painted with as adhesive with lacquer or give the top gold dust. Using traditional tool, we paint part pushing gold leaf with lacquer to foil-stamp and we wipe and wipe the whole with cotton uniformly. We take in temperature, humidity and wipe of lacquered kind and lacquer of dehydration condition of groundwork lacquer and the day and leave condition and decide condition. The delicate lacquered tenacity condition finishes Kyoto luster that say all, and is said to be "juo" (main dumb person) of, foil-stamping peculiar for brightness that yoku etamukkuritoshita is solid.

    Process 9: * (decoration) metal fittings process

    After having done gold carving, we finish and put pure gold processing and make *kingu with hand processing in copper or other metal. In technique of *kingu, classified roughly, and thinned with "flat hardware" which performed line engraving of pattern on copperplate (hair carving), and clipped out pattern; "thin, and there are three kinds of carving" and "ground carving" that finished in bas-relief three-dimensionally. Refined sense and sensitive technique are required and keep in mind so that the body harmonizes with *kingu.

    Process 10: Metal process

     

    Things that each process was completed are collected in one place and are assembled generally, and Kyo Butsugu is completed for the first time in this way.

     

  • Close-up

    Traditional gi, Kyo Butsugu to connect tomorrow

    Kyo Butsugu which is appreciated as work of art. The solemn beauty can be called crystal of the skill of specialty craftsman in charge of subdivided process each. Youths to be craftsman and the tomorrow's craftsman who came after severe ascetic practices. Tradition of Kyo Butsugu was inherited surely.

     

    The division of labor system which is many divergences to prepare high-quality Household Buddhist Fittings into

    Kyoto where there are the head temple of a Buddhist sect more than each denomination 100, temple of three thousand several hundred, and there are a lot of national treasure and cultural assets. Household Buddhist Fittings produces nation-wide approximately 80% here, and, as for the delicate and solemn skill, the country is appreciated as work of art abroad from the start. It is the division of labor system over many divergences we support bottom, and to do the quality. Because each specialty craftsman is in charge of subdivided process, the skill of earnest takumi is given one one of the parts.

    Aura of craftsman drifts from whole body

    Work of Kyoto that can feel relieved

    Mitsuaki Sudo having studio of Buddha statue sculpture sticks out its chest in Yamashina, Kyoto saying "work of Kyoto comes for Honma relief". When "we make Buddha statue in house, lacquering ttemorotari (and we get =) kinhakucho ttemorotari, specialized craftsman santokodeyattemoraimasuga, it is entrusted in peace." Furthermore, it is reliable in Kyoto to ask for repair of Household Buddhist Altars Household Buddhist Fittings. "For example, we add tree of kusu and repair if there is place aching to Buddha made of trees of kusu." It just goes back up in original figure. It is style of repair of craftsman of Kyoto.

    Pupil who is going to learn the skill of boss close

    Disposition of Kyo Butsugu craftsman

    Because it wants you to please with one that he/she ordered above all that only this works carefully heartily. Because "we are thankful for Buddha as for Sudo, we are pleased with everybody Honma. We think that we are not ashamed of it with work osenaakan which we did well." What Sudo keeps in mind "doing way from old days properly." When we create Buddha statue, it is not spread only in the fashion either. You must study superior thing from old days by book and plate enough. It is profound work. We wish to person who is going to buy all the more Household Buddhist Altars Household Buddhist Fittings saying "do not see work only for appearances". Because "we do it to be able to think of us, even Kyoto and to." It "is said that Household Buddhist Altars Household Buddhist Fittings of Kyoto is expensive, but thinks that you can think that it is rather cheap if you can see contents oyo of work. It which does gen utemorotara, Seiichi cup of the range if there is budget is Kyoto."

    Sons in pursuit of sign of father

    By the way, three men including two sons, pupils of four women are live-in and work hard at ascetic practices in studio. The eldest son of Sudo called four years looked at father since it was small, and "he says, we came to think thing doing nature and this work" after starting ascetic practices. After all it is craftsman with arm like father now that sons aim. "Anyway, we think when oi is to parent."

    We continue carving in ... straightness to an adult sometime

    "We cannot but regard work by one as important now"

    Person who learned Household Buddhist Altars and Fittings industrial arts after graduation from high school in Kyoto Traditional Craft technical school, and was apprenticed to "did not want to do that learned at school halfway, and chose way of apprenticeship. Ascetic practices just began and told, we want to try hard now just to handle that we were given though it was all one could do. "We never understand when you can become to an adult. Anyway, we only do work by one carefully." Sudo of boss "place where had finally teach basics generally in ten years. It will take more to become full-fledged." After all way to craftsman is far. Sudo only bought fishing rod during ascetic practices and seemed to be awfully scolded. "It is usable for study of work if we have time, and it means such a money."

    Hand (the right) of big boss talking about the term of service

    Work to have you please, work without deception

    It is not so severe, but pupils of Sudo spend work, at night one's making of work and busy days in the daytime now, too. "Buddha whom the most moving passage comes to judging from eye nicely by hand" We repeat efforts to get the sense. With "we have the chief mourner please when we ask Sudo mental attitude to expect of pupil, working, it is answer working that there is not of deception". We are that repair protects such a way to work later whether work without deception is thing, how many years when we maintain traditional way at properly.

    We add chip of wood (white part) to Buddha statue and restore

    Tradition of Kyoto that protects, and is brought up

    Youths who have begun to still trace way to craftsman by feel now. What you must acquire is enormous, but "follows by all means later if we do one work properly each." Figure which we believe so and continue carving is very refreshing. They surely follow Kyo Butsudan, tradition of Kyo Butsugu, and be brought up and must let you make rapid progress more. Boss watches with warm look strictly, too.

    Craftsman profile

    Mitsuaki Sudo (sudokousho)

    Saying "the touch to adjust to hand is important"; Sudo

    It was born in 1945.
    We study under Mr. sculptor Shinkan Nishikido, master craftsman of Buddhist image Sadamu Sagawa Kei, Buddha statue painter Kenkichi Ogawa and are independent at 29 years old. Master of Traditional Crafts

    Gleanings

     

Summary

Industrial art object name Kyo Butsugu
Phonetic symbol kyobutsugu
Classification of industrial art object Household Buddhist Altars and Fittings
Main product Wooden Household Buddhist Fittings, metal Household Buddhist Fittings, wooden sculpture Buddha, Buddhist painting axis
Main production area Kyoto / Kyoto-shi, Uji-shi, Kameoka-shi, Joyo-shi, Muko-shi, Nagaokakyo-shi, Kizugawa-shi, Nantan-shi
The designation date February 26, 1976

Contact information

■local production associations

Kyoto Household Buddhist Fittings cooperative association
〒600-8216
607-10, Higashishiokoujicho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto
Sun pre-Kyoto Building the third floor
TEL: 075-341-2426
FAX: 075-343-2850

http://www.kyobutsugu.com/

■Associated exhibit space, facility

Characteristic

As for the making of Household Buddhist Fittings of Kyoto where the head temple of a Buddhist sect becoming the cause of each denomination developed more than 100 in environment among more than 3,000 temples and many national treasures, cultural assets, it may be said with the skill and crystal of heart which gathered techniques of the various, high division of labor. Each design and special specifications are in each denomination.

The manufacturing of Kyo butsugu, a craft rooted in an environment where more than 100 head temples of different sects, more than 3,000 temples and a great number of national treasures and cultural assets exist, can be described as a multi-faceted and sophisticated gem made up of a myriad of integrated techniques.
Each religious sect has its own design and individual specifications.

How to make

Two fields of Household Buddhist Fittings for temple and home Household Buddhist Fittings are in Kyo Butsugu. We can divide Household Buddhist Fittings into Household Buddhist Fittings, wooden sculpture Buddha, Buddhist painting axis made of wooden Household Buddhist Fittings, metal. The kind is to 1,500-1,600 kind and one article of production that is all handmade. We foil-stamp bare wood, wooden sculpture, lacquering, lacquer work coloring when we greatly distribute, and we decorate, and there are metal fittings, metalcraft, Buddha statue sculpture and is divided into specialized labors more and processes each component technically.

Kyo butsugu can be divided into the two large categories of temple altar fittings and household altars fittings. Buddhist fittings can also be divided into wooden fittings, metal fittings, wooden sculptures and paintings. The total number of types of fittings amounts to between 1,500 and 1,600, and each one of them is manufactured by hand. The whole process can be divided into the main areas of wood-base preparation, wood carving, lacquering, gold embossing, gold-sprinkled lacquer application, decorative fittings, metal ornaments and Buddha sculptures, each one of which has its own subdivisions and whose respective components are expertly manufactured.

Voice from production center

Household Buddhist Altars is ground of heart. We think that you may buy when if thought to match hand with Household Buddhist Altars . When may not say bad day on good day to receive good treatment.

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